INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 7] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 0105
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
11/6 Aggression Aggression • Definition: behavior directed toward the goal of harming another living being o Important components: behavior, intended, only living things o Everything else is unclear Types of Aggression • Hostile: prime objective is inflicting some kind of harm on the victim • Instrumental: objective is something else o Ex. male-male aggression when competing for mates • Example: Columbine o Explanations: bullying, violent video games/shows/music, mental disorders (depression), access to guns, abuse/parenting, lack of respect for authority Instinctive Aggression • Freud o Eros: life wish (to be alive, happy) o Thanatos: death wish  Lack of stimulation is pleasant (removing noise, itchy sensation) which is why we have a death wish • Fighting instinct o Cats aggress less without mom present to model behavior o When raised with a rat, they are less likely to kill it o This is adaptive, not self-destructive • Displacement: aggression against someone/something other than the source of the strong provocation o Ex. going home from work angry and taking it out on the dog 11/6 • Catharsis Hypothesis: providing angry persons with an opportunity to express their aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways will reduce their tendencies to engage in more harmful forms of aggression o Ex. punching a pillow o Actually may increase aggressiveness o Study  Football players and fans were found to be more aggressive at the end of the season  Confound: at the end, games become more important and they may be more frustrated with their previous performances o Milgrim Study  Used an important issue; told participants their opinions were stupid  Participants told to shock confederate when they missed a word  In the second phase, they still shocked the confederate more even though this person hadn’t told them that their opinion was stupid  This shows that we teach ourselves to be aggressive o Genes  We are 98.7% related to both chimps and bonobos  Chimps are known to murder and have wars at the same rate as hunter- gatherer communities  Bonobos are more like “hippies” and use sex to diminish hostility; greet each other with oral sex  Conclusion: • Aggression is instinctive, but so are inhibitory mechanisms • Aggression is an optional strategy Learned Aggression • Social Learning o Teaches us… 11/6  Ways to aggress  Who to aggress against  What justifies retaliation  In which contexts it is appropriate o Bandura Experiment  Children attacked Bobo doll when it was modeled for them  Also picked up novel weapons and language Functions of Aggression • Coping With Annoyance o Frustration/Aggression Hypothesis  Frustration leads to aggression  Revised: frustration leads to negative emotion leads to aggression  Study: if kids are told that they can’t play but have to watch other kids play, they aggress  Study: putting hands in cold water led to participants shocking more and more often  Increasing frustration • Closeness to goal st th o 1 person in line is more frustrated than the 20 • Unexpectedness o People called asking for money; the participants who were told that it would be pleasant and got a mean person were more aggressive o Excitation Transfer Theory: any form of arousal can enhance aggressive responses 11/6  Arousal from one situation can persist and intensify emotions in later situations  Heat and aggression • More heat leads to more aggression • Violent crimes are higher during heat waves, not non-aggressive crimes • Drivers in non-air conditioned cars were more aggressive and honked more o Type A Behavior: pattern consisting primarily of high levels of competitveness, time urgency, and hostility  Leads to more aggression  Abuse family members  Bus drivers were more likely to pass other vehicles, slam on the brakes, get in accidents, and be reprimanded o Poverty as Frustration  Unemployed people are more likely to argue, be depressed, and be more violent • Gain Material and Social Rewards o Media  More aggressive teams are paid more  Show the rewards of being violent  Both good and bad characters are violent  Aggressors don’t show remorse  Studies show that kids play more violently after watching violent TV (police drama or sports) • Children who were prone to violence would be aggressive, others wouldn’t (follow-up) • Is this just priming or is it longitudinal?  Survey: time spent watching TV had impact on aggression (correlational) 11/6  Remember less ads during violent shows  .3 correlation (even weaker for girls) o Pornography  Scripts: way we behave socially that we learn implicitly from our culture  Shows that women resist and men persist  Survey:
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