INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 8] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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PSY 0105
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10/30 Groups Groups Definition: a collection of persons who are perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit to some degree Features: • Frequent interaction • Group is important to people o Ex. bus stop vs. soccer team • Share common goals and outcomes o Ex. winning or losing games together • Similarity is very important o Ex. people on a team are similar, but not necessarily those at a bus stop o Groups recruit similar members and encourage/pressure members to maintain their similarity • Are interdependent and work together • Share a common identity • Possess structure o Ex. captain, positions • Best functioning groups have about 2-6 members o Above 6, they end up breaking into subgroups Benefits of Membership • Self-knowledge o Benefit from the knowledge of other members o Study: participants were given a task  If it conformed with their gender role, they wanted to do it alone 10/30  If it did not, they wanted to work with others • Self-enhancement o Some groups have a certain status with which you want to identify o Ex. psi chi is recognized as a prestigious society for psych majors o Status matters • Self-transcendence o Maintain social justice o Organizations to fight poverty or clean up the environment o Status does not matter in this case • Resources o Benefit from things that other members have • Satisfies needs o Inclusion  Need for belonging o Control  We gain control and are controlled when in groups o Affection  Get and display from/towards other members Costs of Membership • Restricts personal freedom • Demands time, energy, and resources Studying Small Groups • Statistical problems o Usually we assume independence o In groups we have the problem of interdependence 10/30 o As a result, they can be challenging to study • Running Group Experiments o Everyone needs to be able to show up at the same times o Time consuming for everyone • Measuring Behavior o Has decreased, more dependence on survey results o Easier to get survey results, which aren’t as interesting and affects the popularity of the studies • College Samples o Popular for studies o More conformist to groups, affecting behavior o Don’t generalize well Group Composition • Diversity o Best When:  One member must find an answer  There are new solutions  Flexibility  Adaptability  Creativity • Socialization Model: a process of mutual adjustment that produces changes over time in the relationship between a person and a group (Moreland and Levine) o Unique because it proposes that people look for groups while groups look for people, they shape each other, and composition is dynamic o Steps: 10/30  Investigation: prospective member • Reconozance, recruitment  Socialization: new member • Assimilation to norms, accommodation of needs  Maintenance: full member (may be indefinite) • Role negotiation on both sides  Resocialization: marginal member • Assimilation, accommodation  Remembrance: ex-member • Remember either fond or horrible things Group Structure • Roles: sets of behaviors that individual occupying specific positions in a group are expected to perform o Stanford Prison Experiment, Zimbardo  Set up a fake prison situation and randomly assigned students to either guard or prisoner role  Zimbardo was also engaged in a role as the head of the prison, which made it difficult for him to see how horrible it was  Techniques: broke apart unity, gave special privileges  Made special arrangements so that the first prisoner to leave could not come back  Even parents complied with the rules when they came for a visitor day  Lucifer Effect: stress, little supervision led to guards setting their own rules • Norms: rules within a group • Cohesiveness: all forces that cause group members to remain in a group o Glue that bonds members together 10/30 o Factors:  Effort required to gain entry (related to hazing)  External threats (like from other countries)  Size (small is better)  Performance (the better they are, the more cohesive—vice versa) • Entativity: extent to which a group is perceived as being a coherent entity o How group-like a group seems o Factors:  Similarity  Outcomes (going to the same place?)  Same direction (walking together)  Permeability (how easy it is to enter or leave) Group Dynamics • Minority Influence: how the minority gains acceptance o Effectiveness: consistency, flexibility, compromise o Public vs. Private Acceptance; it is not normative to outwardly agree with the minority • Status: individual’s personal rank in a group o Develops instantly by nonverbal behavior  Evolutionary advantage because it tells us who to listen to o Romanticism: we give leaders too much credit for success or failure o Leadership  Leader Qualities 10/30 • Extraverted • Intelligent (or having more expertise) • Desire for power • Charismatic • Socially skilled • Open to new experiences • Confident • Invested in the group • Physical: taller, mature features, aggressive, less aware of others  Leadership Styles • Transactional/Transformational (best leaders are both) o Transactional: leaders who set clear, short term goals and reward people who meet them o Transformational: leaders who inspire followers to focus on
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