INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 1] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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University of Pittsburgh
PSY 0105

9/18 Deception and Evolution Subliminal Processing • Subliminal Messages: words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence peoples’ judgments, attitudes, and behaviors o Study suggested that people would buy soda when they saw a message at the movies o Study showed people the word beef; people got hungrier but not necessarily for a beef sandwich • Efficacy increased when: o Illumination: the room is well lit o No distraction: focused on what they are watching o No supraliminal messages: needs to be a blank screen, no under a TV show o Goal relevant: if they are already in a certain mood it will better direct their behavior o Simple messages: nothing too complex • Still unclear on effects but we know that peoples see them because their familiarity is increased Deception Though we think we are good at detecting lies, we are only 54% accurate • Typical Paradigm o Subjects shown a video where an actor (stranger) lies to them or tells the truth o Receivers judge 16 messages (irrelevant to them) o Not really representative of real life (usually we know the person and they are telling us something that matters to us) • Experts o Not really that much better at detecting lies, though the secret service has 64% accuracy 9/18 • Polygraphs: machines that detect arousal by comparing control and target questions (What is your name?/Did you kill this person?) o Great chance of inaccuracy (25% rate of accuracy) o Liars may also trick the machine if they don’t feel guilty or if they raise their arousal for the control questions • Why we are bad at detecting deception o We pay attention to the wrong cues and not enough attention to the right ones  We think liars fidget, hesitate, or do not make eye contact  We don’t pay attention to behavioral rigidity (they purposely control their behaviors because they are aware of what they’re doing o Truth Bias: we want to believe people, especially those that are close to us • How to find Liars o Microexpressions: very quick, fleeting facial expressions o Interchannel Discrepancies: smiling but fists are clenched o Exaggerated Facial Expressions: trying to act and be convincing o Eyes: pupils dilate for concentration Evolution • Change in inherited characteristics of biological populations • Natural Selection: gradual, non-random process by which traits become more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction o Key Components: variation, inheritance, differential reproduction o “Fitness” depends on environment  We
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