INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 9] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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PSY 0105

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11/20 ProSocial Behavior ProSocial Behavior • Helpful actions that benefit others o Kitty Genovese  Attacked, brutally murdered  There were about 38 witnesses  Only intervention was someone yelling  Tragic example of the bystander effect o Liviu Librescu  Born in 1930 as a Jew in Romania  Survived the Holoaust  Studied Aerospace Engineering  Came to U.S. and ended up at VT  Blockaded the door and told students to leave through the window  Was killed, but saved the lives of many others Bystander Effect Bystander Effect: the likelihood of a prosocial response is affected by the number of bystanders • Implicit Bystander effect: decrease in helping behavior brought about by simply thinking about being in a group • Role of others o Potential sources of aid  They may help the victim so you don’t need to o Sources of information as to if aid is necessary  Helps you interpret why aid is/isn’t necessary o Sources of aid/disapproval of aid 11/20  People may or may not approve of you helping others • Why it occurs o Darley and Latane  Religiosity • Tested time pressure (5/15 min), religiosity (implicit/explicit), and prosocial behavior • Religiosity didn’t matter • Time pressure did matter o 90% of hurried people stepped over a man lying in the way o 65% of non-hurried people did so  Group Experiment • Student worked over an intercom with a confederate • Either 1, 2, or 4 people total • 1 person: 85% helped in 60 sec, 100% helped in 2.5 min • 2 people: 62% helped in 60 sec, never reached 100% • 4 people: 31% helped in 60 sec, after 6 min only 61% had helped  Smoke Experiment • Groups are in the room filling out a questionnaire • Smoke beings to fill in • 1 person: 75% left the room • 3 people: 38% left the room • Shows pluralistic ignorance o Mechanisms of the Bystander Effect 11/20  Diffusion of Responsibility: the amount of responsibility is split up among all people present • If you are 1/100, you are 1% responsible  Pluralistic Ignorance • Misrepresentation of private view because the public view does not accurately reflect it  **When people give reasons for not helping, they give reasons besides that there were others present o Steps involved in an emergency response  Attending to the situation • Notice that something is wrong • Ex. if you are hurrying you probably won’t notice  Interpreting the situation • Is is a good or bad situation? Is it urgent?  Assuming responsibility • Diffused among bystanders  Assessing ability to take action • Are you capable of helping? • Ex. do you know the Heimlich or CPR?  Deciding whether to act • Will people approve or disapprove? • Is there any danger? o Increasing Helping  Alcohol—lowers inhibitions  Friendship—more likely to help friends  Gender—both genders help women more frequently 11/20  Responsibility of Victim—less responsible, more helping  ProSocial Models—good or bad models in our lives  Empathy—our personality  Instilled Values—our upbringing  Expanded Sense of “We”—more likely to help ingroup members  Mimicry—the more similar the person is to you  What YOU can do… • Call a person specifically • Make eye contact • Tell them your name • If there is going to be later interaction, they are more likely to help you o Motives for Helping  Empathy-altruism: when we feel empathy for a person we will help regardless of what we will gain • Experiment: manipulate people’s empathy and the cost;
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