INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 4] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 0105
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
10/2 Attitudes • Attitudes: evaluations of various aspects of the social world o Why study them? They are building blocks of social thought and may influence our behavior o Ex. propaganda used during elections influences how we feel towards a candidate which influences who we end up voting for o Explicit: attitudes we consciously endorse and can easily report  Ex. how we feel about ice cream o Implicit: attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious  Ex. stereotypes and prejudice Attitude Formation • Classical Conditioning: form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, acquires the capacity to evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulus o Experiment: subjects received subliminal exposure to either a shark or a happy couple and were then asked to rate a neutral picture of a woman; those who saw the negative picture rated the woman more negatively o Experiment: subjects listened to pleasant music while writing with a blue pen and unpleasant music while writing with a beige pen or vice versa; when asked to choose one, they liked the one that they were using when listening to pleasant music o Advertisements: cigarette ads tell you that you will look like someone who is rough or tough o Repeated pairings must occur for an association to be made • Operant Conditioning: form of learning in which responses that lead to positive outcomes or that permit avoidance of negative outcomes are strengthened o Experiment: students were asked about aloha week; for half, the researcher said “good” every time the student said something positive; on a later survey, those who were positively reinforced rated the event more highly • Observational Learning: watching friends and family 10/2 o Ex. people with phobias get over their fear by watching others—if you have a fear of dogs, you may no longer be afraid after watching someone play with a well- behaved dog • Heredity: some select issues like religion and politics may be affected by inheritance o Certain genes are associated with neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine o Ex. a gene affects a dopamine receptor; this dopamine receptor makes people more likely to have more friends and have more liberal attitudes Strength of Attitudes • Strong attitudes are stable, more resistant to persuasion, and predict behavior more accurately o These are important mainly because they can predict behavior o Higher Commitment; more certain that you are correct  Ex. if you have a strong attitude about a pro-choice ruling, you probably believe it is the correct political choice o Highly Embedded; more connected to other things/attitudes  Pro-choice beliefs are probably linked to attitudes towards women, so you’d have to also change that to change your belief about abortion Attitude­Behavior Consistency • LaPiere, 1934 o Chinese couple went to many restaurants, were rejected service at only one of them o When surveyed a week later, 90% of those same restaurants said that they would reject service to a Chinese couple • Factors increasing consistency: o Strength of Attitude  Knowledge Amount • Ex. If you like dogs, you probably know a lot about them and vice versa  Direct Experience 10/2 • Ex. if you had a dog, you probably like them because you spent time with one  Personal Relevance • Ex. women might have stronger attitudes towards abortion • Experiment: there was an issue regarding the drinking age and whether it should be higher; those affected were more likely to act by signing a form or attending a rally  Accessibility of Attitude • Ex. some people are very concerned about the environment and think about it a lot, therefore their attitudes are strengthened o Low Self-Monitoring  Do not adjust their attitudes to fit the situation  Someone higher on self-monitoring will act in more situationally/socially appropriate ways  Ex. they may not hide their anti-environmentalist views even if they are visiting at a house in which they know these things are very important o No Situational Constraints  Ex. peer pressure, please recycle sign, etc.  Time Pressure • Ex. no time to choose whether to recycle so they just do what they would normally do • Theory of Planned Behavior: theory suggesting that in addition to an attitude toward a given behavior and the subjective norms about it, individuals also consider the ability to perform the behavior • Pluralistic Ignorance: when we collectively misunderstand what attitudes others hold and believe (erroneously) that others have different attitudes than ourselves o We think (incorrectly) that others disagree with us o Happens due to a misrepresentation of attitude 10/2 o Ex. in a complicated lecture, you think that everyone else understands because nobody is raising their hand to ask a question o Prentice and Miller, 1993  Students estimate that the typical student is more comfortable with drinking than they are  But how is drinking so popular when there are so many negative consequences?  Scale of 1-11, how comfortable are you with drinking and how comfortable do you think others are with drinking?  Study 2: found that males ended up becoming more comfortable (adopting norms), while females became less comfortable  This is also true for hook-up behavior • Persuasion: efforts to change others’ attitudes through the use of various kinds of messages o Ex. apple commercials •
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