INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 6] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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PSY 0105
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10/16 Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination Definitions • Stereotypes: (cognitive) beliefs about social groups in terms of traits that they share o Cognitive frameworks (schemas) o Use them because they are efficient (form of heuristic) o Aren’t always wrong and can be positive • Prejudice: (affective) attitudes toward the members of specific social groups o Prejudiced People  Seek confirmatory information  Dislike ambiguity about membership  Believe in underlying essences • There are certain things that cannot be changed  Process information on targets more carefully • Discrimination: (behavioral) differential behaviors directed toward members of different social groups o Findings:  Black patients were less likely to get better testing for diagnoses  Overweight got less money from their parents for their education, earned less money from their salary  At a car dealership, black females and males were charged way more than their white counterparts  A person wearing a “Gay and Proud” shirt was treated more poorly than a person wearing a “Texan and Proud” shirt o Hate crime is when people target members of specific social groups  Rates are going down  Mostly involves race, religion, and sexual orientation 10/16 o Institutionalized Discrimination: officially sanctioned discrimination  Ex. affirmative action, tax breaks for people who are married or have children Methodology • Bogus Pipelines o A research paradigm used to reduce the effect of self-presentational motivations on attitudinal and behavioral self-reports o Essentially is a fake lie detector test o Tests only the attitudes that people are aware of • Minimal Groups o Experimental procedure in which short-term, arbitrary, artificial groups are created o Will people still have biases? o Still identify with their own group, think it is better, reward other members more o Ex. wearing the same color shirt as a bunch of other people and liking them better than people wearing different colors o Social Categorization: tendency to divide the world into separate categories: our ingroup and outgroups  Outgroup homogeneity: tendency to perceive members of an out-group as “all alike”  Ingroup differentiation: tendency to perceive members of our own group as being heterogeneous  Ex. thinking that chemists all study the same exact thing but being aware that psychology majors study very different things  Ultimate Attribution Error: make more favorable and flattering attributions about members of one’s own group than about members of other groups • Negative qualities of an outgroup membertheir personality 10/16 • Positive qualities of an outgroup membersomething external • Implicit Association Tests o Strength of associations between two concept
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