Midterm 1 Review.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 0005
Professor
Daniela Donno

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Review Guide, Societies Midterm, Spring 2013 Lectures and Global Sociology Lectures and Global Sociology  Two ways of categorizing sociology o Methodology  Quantitative- statistics  Qualitative- statistics and interviews o Level of Analysis  Micro-Level – studies the interactions between people and groups  Macro-Level – social structures, societies  Sociological Imagination (24)– the missing dimension in sociology is the self or the subjective... o To address this issue, Weber coined the term Verstehen (meaning insight/understanding/empathy).  “Aktuelles Verstehen” – superficial, immediate understanding  “Erklarendes Verstehen”- analyzing the motivation, intentions, and context to give a deeper meaning or possible interpretations o The most powerful form of subjective sociology is called symbolic interactionism (the idea that people actively create, shape and select their response to what is around them).  Empirical arguments & theory o Arguments o Theory  Xenophobia: Fear of overpopulation, fear of foreigners from a strange country, fear of the unknown. Caused by a rapid growth in population.  Wallerstein (39)- pioneered the World System’s Theory o Stances- Empires and states were not important. Instead he emphasized trade networks that crossed state boundaries. o Perspectives- criticized for overemphasizing the role of economic trade in social change  “Third World” (38)- used during the Cold War to distinguish the non-aligned poor countries from the First (rich democracies of the West) and Second World Countries (communist-led countries)  Modernization Theory: all societies pass through stages of development. Movement is based on population growth and technology. Based on analysis of European societies. Problem—non-western countries weren’t modernizing as predicted. In fact, some were ‘unmodernizing’.  World-System Theory: tried to explain why some countries weren’t developing o Structure- all societies are locked into one world system and there can be movement within the system. The 3 components are interrelated, interacting, and interdependent. Review Guide, Societies Midterm, Spring 2013 o Parts of WST  Core- rich, developed countries that draw profit from peripheral societies  Semi-Periphery- semi-industrialized countries; hope to make their way up to the core  Periphery- poor, dependent countries that are locked in a subordinate relationship to the core o Criticisms of the theory  Culture  Social/State Structures- neglects local class struggles  Economic Determinism- some states are not at the mercy of the economy  Hard to disprove- some use the theory to fit any evidence by using some facts and ignoring others  Causality could be backward- maybe some countries are not dependent because they’re poor, they’re poor because they’re dependent  Missed prior non-European countries  Cannot explain the collapse of state communism  Does not allow a sufficient place for political and cultural analysis o Evolution over time  Globalization: all processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single society, a global society (44) o Main processes that characterize globalization:  Changing Concepts of Time and Space (45)- time and space compression, facilitated by technology has put many of the world’s inhabitants on the same stage  Increasing Cultural Interactions and Flows (47)- has transformed our experience of cultural meanings and knowledge. We are now able to lift cultural meanings out of its context and transplant them into our own. We have rapid access to greater quantities of sources now more than ever. Provides a multitude of different possibilities in regards to cuisine, religion, etc. Most of these consequences are only made possible through the electronic mass media of communication.  The Commonality of Problems (49) facing all the world’s inhabitants- self- explanatory!  Growing Interconnections and Interdependencies (52)- binds participants into a dense network of transnational exchanges and affiliations. The once clear cut separation between the sphere of national life and the international sphere was broken down.  A network of increasingly powerful transnational actors and organizations (53)  The synchronization of all the dimensions (economic, technological, political, social and cultural) involved in globalization (57) o What is the role of technology in Globalization?  Mapping the globe & power Review Guide, Societies Midterm, Spring 2013  Major arguments of Mujica speech-Sustainability is not an ecological issue, but a political one. Because of our demands for material goods, we are being ruled by the market. Mujica calls for change, "we must rule the market." Cultural issue: "we must re- examine our way of life."  Culture: depicts all the modes of thought, behavior, and artifacts that are transmitted from one generation to the next (ex. education). Rich in imagery, metaphors, signs, and symbols. Becoming commercialized- only available by paying money. The cultural interactions arising from increased contact between peoples have transformed our experience of cultural meanings and knowledge. (47)  Transnational Corporations (TNC): o 3 Most Important Features: 1. Vast global power and reach 2. Create an interdependent world economy 3. Connections to the world financial system (53) o operate throughout the world with disregard to borders of nations  International Corporations (INC): groupings of different corporations; even relationship --> allies  International Governmental Organizations (IGO): supra-state actors that shape world affairs ex. the League of Nations, UN (53)  International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGO): autonomous organizations that are not accountable to governments, though they may work with them at times. o Ex. peace, anti-slavery, labor organizations, Greenpeace, Red Cross, Oxfam and Amnesty International (54)  Global Social Movements (GSM): informal organizations working for change but galvanized around a single unifying issue. Ex. human rights, peace, environmental, and women’s movements. Mobilize world opinions on political and moral issues ex. Earth Summit (unofficial ‘green festival’) (54)  Diasporas: formed by the forcible or voluntary dispersion of peoples to a number of countries. They constitute a diaspora if they continue to evince a common concern for their homeland and come to share a common fate with their own people (54). Diasporas arise because of religious, ethnic, or political disputes with governments over the demand for full citizen rights, the recognition of semi-autonomy, or the granting of independent national status. Ex. Greek, Jewish, Parsi (54)  Topics in Ch. 2 & 21: o Identity processes (62)  Selection (AKA Glocalization): describes how global pressures and demands are made to conform to local conditions. Whereas powerful companies might customize their product to local markets, glocalization operates in the opposite direction. Local actors select and modify elements from an array of global possibilities, thereby initiating some democratic and creative engagement between the local and the global.  Adaptation  Resistance o Transnationalism: transnational communities are enocurgaed by space­time  compression and have an increasing volume and intensity of ties, family visits etc o Transnational actors o Identity Review Guide, Societies Midterm, Spring 2013 o Class o Cosmopolitanism (519)- Cosmopolitan identities are more fluid, more situational, more ambiguous, and more open. People may move through different zones or planes of belonging, perhaps combining residual attachments to a local community, a cross-ethnic partnership or marriage, and a transnational lifestyle in respect of leisure and cultural pursuits. May be threatening to those assert that the only way to respond to globalization is to assert a determined loyalty to their ethnic group, nation, or religion. Principles of Marxism: “Marxism”= an ideology that called for movements for international labor solidarity • Materialism:  o Social progress is driven by the productive forces of society  o Focus on acquiring and using goods • Historical: o Focus on “historical modes of production” or the story of societal changes in how we  access and change things  Story of production • Political economy: o Includes the theory of surplus value:  Idea that successful capitalism depends on employers  Workers first paid for themselves, next paid for their reproduction (Enough for  family) and then left enough value for profits and dividends  • Sociology:  o Forces of production linked to the relations of production via “structure vs. agency”  Balance of the environment related to creation of industry o How other people’s ideas affect us Alienation • Concept that under capitalism workers become estranged or alienated from their skills because  no satisfaction in work • No connection to with product • Product of labor does not belong to them=powerlessness Keynesian economic approach, State capitalism, Neoliberalism • Keynesian approach:  o Left unregulated, market forces widen inequality between income and wealth making  normal consumption rates hard to achieve  o Calls for government regulations for a functioning capitalist system  Redistribute income from rich to poor (progressive taxation) in order to increase  demand and expand the economy   Increases political power • State Capitalism o Based off of Keynes Review Guide, Societies Midterm, Spring 2013 o State is the primary economic player (not private businesses) o Ex. China’s capitalism • Neoliberalism: o Opposite of State Capitalism o Deregulation of economic life and reduces role of state o Free Market system Political economy perspective • How politics and the government is involved in the market o Capitalism vs. Marxism Public goods, private goods, impure goods • Public Goods: collectively funded service that cannot be provided by market o Government choose to supply from public funds   Ex. Education, water supply  o Non­rivalry consumption=use of good does not prevent others from using it to the same  extent o Non­excludability = cannot keep people from enjoying or benefiting  o Why supply from public funds?  Believe it should be available to all  Can’t be priced accurately so can’t be efficiently supplied by market o Why can’t it be priced accurately?  Nonexcludability, non rivalry consumption, impossibility of rejection • Private Goods:  o Goods not government subsidized o Produced by individual private companies and then sold in the market for profit • Impure Goods:  o Partly excludable or rivaled o Impure Public Good: “Club Goods” – public Is limited, but non­rival consumption (once  you’re in the club, th egree grass is for you also). Ex: ublic school: once you live there,  anyone can attend o Impure Private Good: Atleast partly excludable. Benefits/costs affect public, not just  those directly involved in economic transaction. Ex: vaccinations (helps you and other  people) Regime of accumulation & modes of regulation: Aglieta and Lipietz argue that eras of stability in  capitalism requires BOTH “regime of accumulation” and a “mode of regulation” or else crisis ensues • Conditions that must be present in a stable capitalist system o Regime of accumulation: idea of surplus value  Refers to the way production is organized  Employers seeks to maximize profits by paying employees less and controlling  labor  Balance between proportion of profit and share consumed by individuals o Modes of regulation: gives social stability  Review Guide, Societies Midterm, Spring 2013  Acceptance of “proper” consumption levels and supportive political policies   Guarantee of social stability (compliance) and government support to ensure  reproduction of capitalism over time Fordism: its features, its rise, its fall
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