Midterm 2 Notes.docx

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University of Pittsburgh
SOC 0005
Daniela Donno

Societies 0005 3/18/13 Lecture 13 So far this semester… • Set out structure of society at a global level o Economic, political, identities • Some axes of inequality in that global context, how people think of them, attempts to affect them • Conflict we see in different spheres of social life including ways they are related to global structure and inequalities • Ways that structure, inequalities, conflicts are seen in changing ways social life is organized Deviance “Behavior that is banned, censured, stigmatized or penalized (pg. 219)” • Sane vs. Insane o Common sense: gives us information, observations, interpretations o Criminals and deviants are different from normal people o Fox News: rapists are usually people we know – cannot completely defend self  Democrats – why not prevent rapes from occur, teach men not to rape  Republicans – inevitable to rape, women need a way to defend themselves buy carrying a gun or any other weapon o Steubenville  “We all have gone against the norm in some manner, we have all been deviant.” Essentialist View of Deviance • Deviant behaviors are objective, universally recognized as deviant • Question: what are the causes of being different o Milgram Experiment: obedience and shock values  Circumstances can shape behavior more than we think  The nature of deviant behavior is a matter of perspective Social Constructionist View of Deviance • Categories of “deviant” are social, not natural o Based on perspectives and interests of the observer  Ex. High school party where everyone but one person is drinking • Parents may think that this person is good and is a role model • Other high school students may think they are going against the norm  47%/Takers – Mitt Romney Speech • People who are poor o Take/use public services from society without giving back o Law-abiding citizens – have the right to use public services Societies 0005 Categories Do Not Equal Reality • Calling anything deviant only makes sense in a system that makes it seem deviant • Question: Why, in what circumstances is something seen as deviant? What are societal reactions to deviance? Characteristics of Deviance 1. Behavior of Characteristics • Some people in a society find offensive or reprehensible • Generates disapproval, punishment, condemnation or, or hostility toward, the actor or professor – or would generate if discovered • Deviates from the “norm” o Not a quality of the act a person commits o Norms vary from one culture to another, within any given culture  Deviant behavior varies with norms, across groups 2. ANon-Evaluative Term (Academically) • Describes behaviors considered to be out-of-norm by culture of study • People doing things (in ways) that are not take for granted 3. Alabel used to maintain power, control, and position of a dominant group • Powerful people decide what acts are deviant or just, serious or minor o White Collar Crime (federal) vs. Blue Collar Crime (street) 4. Alabel that is attached to acts and also people • Labeling Theory Societies 0005 3/20/13 Lecture 14 Labeling Theory Three Stages of Deviance 1. Primary Deviance a. Person commits act b. Person is considered deviant, treated as a deviant c. Person considers self as deviant 2. Secondary Deviance a. Self identified deviant commits more deviant acts • Ex. employment applications, check box for committing acts of crime, may deter from hiring  goes back to deviant behaviors/crimes (self-fulfilling prophecy) 3. Tertiary Deviance a. Attempts to normalize deviant behavior • Ex.Autism Rights Movement/Autism Liberation Movements o Autism = Neural Diversity o Anti-cure perspective: taking a disease and turning it into a diversity cure for autism is bad because takes away neural diversity and turns back into mainstream perspectives o New York City – Stop & Frisk Law o Murder o Debates about what is murder – does abortion count? o What is the real deviant? – leader, paid person o Intent to murder vs. murder by self-defense Re-Applying Labeling Theory • Labeling based on characteristics, not individual behaviors (stereotypes) • Crime • Sometimes the person is (or organization’s) label wins out • Terrorism o When are you a terrorist, freedom fighter, defender? Social Control • How to keep people form participating in deviant acts? o Keeping deviants in prison o Judging person wearing a costume • Norm and Social Control • Everyone, everywhere is subjected to certain norms o Norms  punishments or sanctions Societies 0005 o No society where “anything goes” – there are always norms Forms of Social Control • Internal o Socialization: when norms of society accepted as valid, the norms are internalized • External o What about people who don’t have norms internalized? o System of sanctions (rewards and punishments) to induce others to conform to a norm o Negative social control (coercive): making people do something for them Sanctions • Positive Sanction – Reward • Negative Sanction – Punishment o Social control usually relies on negative sanctions • Informal o Interpersonal actions between people remind that behavior is upsetting or pleasing o Informal agents of social control act on their own • Formal o Criminal justice system o Class attendance Activity that was a crime, but now is not • During women’s suffrage movement o Women dressed as men to vote • Prohibition o Unitth States own mistste o 19 Amendment  21 Amendment to amend the previous amendment • Urinating in public used to be a sex offense – now it is just a crime Societies 0005 3/25/13 Lecture 15 What is Religion? – set of beliefs that separate the sacred and profane, beliefs in some things as sacred • Literal/Metaphorical Meeting o Separates sacred matter from profane matters  Profane – worldly, not linked with religion/religious beliefs o Practices  Rituals and totems, book discuss o Manifest in a moral community, usually Perspective on Religion • Conflict • Functionalist Theory • Symbolic Interactionism Conflict Perspective on Religion • Critical of Religion o Karl Marx  “Religion is the sign of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a hitless world…its is the opium of the masses.” • Religious teachings mirror society’s inequalities • Legitimates inequalities o Tend to support existing social arrangements as Godly desires  Ex. leader of state divinely appointed; caste system; antebellum (pre-civil war) US slavery Functionalism/Functionalism Perspective on Religion • What does religion do? Durkheim o Answers questions about meaning of life o Provides emotional comfort o Sets up social communities o Supplies guidelines for everyday life o Helps keep society cohesive Symbolic Interactionist Perspective on Religion • Focus on meanings of how practical Societies 0005 o Symbols – provide identity, social solidarity  Sacred emblems  Meaningful declarations o Rituals – create about telling, closeness with deity o Beliefs – interpretations vary, related to cultural context • Together, these create communities for members *** Graphs posted on CourseWeb*** Charts: 1. Christians (31.5%) > Muslims (23.2%) > Unaffiliated (16.3%) > Hindus (15%) > Buddhists (7.1%) > Folk Religionists (5.9%) > Other (0.8%) > Jewish (0.2%) 2. Membership in Religious Traditions 3. Do you believe in God? 4. Do you believe in a personal God or impersonal force? 5. Religion is very important in my life 6. Many religions can lead to eternal life? 7. Opinions about popular culture and religion 8. What is your opinion about abortion? Homosexuality? Religion and the United States • Two Main Ideologies o Civic Religion  Collection of beliefs, symbols, sentiments that connection the nation to some types of transcendent reality o Separation of church and state  Separation of religious of political activity o Logical tension between the two  Belief in United States as divine historical more  National political history built on religious based morality o Separation is ambiguous
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