BTNY 11000 Midterm: lab exam #1 notes

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BOTANY 110 Lab Exams
Lab #1
- Plant structure, plant cells, and microscopes
INTRODUCTION TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
Roots will always have primary roots and branch roots (secondary roots), and a root apical meristem (tip
of root) (RAM)
Main part of leaf = blade
- Many times also have
o Petioles- stem like thing leading to leaf
o Stipules- two very little things where a leaf branches off
Stems always have nodes, internodes, and meristems
- Axillary buds
- Stem apical meristem (SAM)
There are 3 plant organs
1) Root parts
a. Primary root
b. Branch roots
c. RAM
2) Leaf parts (shoots)
a. Blade
b. Petiole
c. Stipules
3) Stem parts (shoots)
a. Nodes
b. Internodes
c. Meristems (SAM & axillary)
Leaf venation is how to distinguish dicot and monocots
- Netted dicot
- Parallel monocot
PLANT ORGANS
Stem will have nodes and internodes at regular intervals
Nodes indicated by presence of leaves, or leaf scars, which sometimes encircle entire stem
What part do you eat of these vegetables
Lettuce leaf
Carrot root
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Asparagus stem
Radish root
Celery leaf
As long as the stem and SAM are alive plants will grow and only the leaves will die
MICROSCOPES
- Magnifications of objective lenses on the scopes
o 4X
o 10X
o 20X
o 40X
- Magnification of the eye pieces
o 10X
- Total highest magnification
o 400X
Do not use coarse focus at 20X or 40X ONLY the fine focus
- Easy to damage the lens and the slide
The epidermis has thicker cell walls than the interior layers of cells
PLANT CELL STRUCTURE
Plants multicellular eukaryotic organisms
- Most abundant organelle in each cell
o Chloroplast
- Largest organelle in each cell
o Vacuole
- Cytoplasmic streaming
o See movement in some cells
PARTS OF A MICROSCOPE
- Light source
- Condenser lens
- Iris diaphragm
- Objective lens
- Nosepiece
- Eyepieces
- Body tube
- Mechanical stage
- Stage clip
- Coarse focus
- Fine focus
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