CHM 11500 Final: General Chemistry_Final Exam Study Guide [Concocted An A With This Guide!]

186 views70 pages
CHM 115 - Lecture 1 - Introduction
Major Course Topics:
What is the relationship between matter and energy?
How humans harness energy (especially chemical energy) to do work
How human use of energy impacts the environment
How energy transformations occur on a molecular scale
How Humans Harness Energy to Do Work:
Humans use energy from several sources including:
Fossil fuels (Non-renewable)
Nuclear energy (Non-renewable)
Solar (Renewable)
Wind (Renewable)
Geothermal (Renewable)
Hydroelectric (Renewable)
Biomass (Renewable)
Hydrogen (Can be renewable or non-renewable, depending on initial energy source)
How Human Use of Energy Impacts the Environment
Climate Change
Climate vs. Weather
Weather: meteorological conditions in a specific time and place
Climate: the average weather conditions over an extended period of time or an extended region
Climate is changing, global average temperatures are beginning to warm
● IPCC
Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change
Committee that analyzes the potential consequences of climate change due to human causes
Agreement among IPCC scientists (and many others) that much of the current climate change is
caused by humans
Climate Patterns
Due to attributes of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun, certain long term climate patterns can
be observed throughout history
60,000 year long oscillation of global climate
Example: 20,000-14,000 years BP the global climate was much colder, resulting in more of
Earth’s water being held in the form of large glaciers. Since more water was frozen, ocean
levels were lower and more land was exposed, possibly allowing humans to migrate from Asia
to North America over an exposed land bridge
CHM 115 - Lecture 2 - Climate Change and Review
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 70 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Long Term Climate Change
Glacier ice sublimes over the year, and this sublimation is temperature dependent
Ice is made up of H2O containing different isotopes of oxygen
● H2O containing 16O sublimes faster than 18O
Therefore, during hotter periods of time, there is a larger proportion of 18O in the ice compared
to 16O than normal
The proportions of oxygen isotopes in ice samples can be used to estimate the temperature at
the time when the ice was formed
This is referred to as “proxy” data
Data from these ice samples allows us to determine climate patterns at times when temperature
values were not being recorded
Long term climate change involves a cycle of alternating Ice Ages and Interglacial periods and is
due to characteristics of the Earth’s revolution around the sun
Short Term Climate Change
Global average temperatures are rising
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 70 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Glacial ice is thinning
(Blue areas indicate thinner ice)
Rise in temperature correlates with rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 70 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class