What constitutes a disorder : statistical deviance common or not, ex. Iq high (no disorder) but low (has disorder: ex. Athletes genetics and many hours of training: maladaptive behavior behavior that is harmful, ex. Alcohol poisoning harmful towards the brain and body: suffering emotional pain, ex. Distance running bodies aren"t meant to run that long: runner"s high = endurance kicks in, ex. Irrationality not logical; doesn"t make sense, no reason: ex. Superstitions (unrealistic beliefs/myths: making others uncomfortable (negatively effecting others, violating societal standards (norms, socially acceptable, different societies have different societal standards. Elements of abnormality: do they have a disorder, ex. Irrationality: need more information (why, when, etc. , psychological dysfunction feeling unusual emotions, personal distress impairment in day-to-day life, atypical unusual/abnormal. Incidence: how often it occurs: dsm-5: guideline for all the details about mental diseases/illnesses, prevalence: rare/not rare, onset: when it starts, course: chronic/acute, prognosis: future diagnosis, etiology: environmental, social, etc.