PSY 421- Exam 1 Study Guide Rutva Shah 1
1. Define binge drinking and standard drink sizes and their relation to blood alcohol levels;
a. Define binge drinking
i. .08 or more bac is binge drinking in a two hour drinking session is the
ii. car crashes
iv. damagethe liver and other organs
b. What’s a standard drink size:
i. 12% for wine and beer is 5%, 40% liquor, 4% wine cooler (but it’s a
ii. 4 wine, 12 beer, 1.25 liqour, 12 wine cooler
iii. important to know how units of alcohol are measured. Grams of alcohol is
a standard unit of measurement. When comparing across beverages or
even across countries..need to make sure you are talking about same
amount. For example, in USA grams of alcohol in standard drink size is
larger than in Australia.
v. Know standard drink sizes from slide and know how that relates to bac
vi. .02 BAC avg drink size
c. Speed at which you can become intoxicated (how long you take to consume like
shot of liqueur versus beer)
d. male/female differences.
i. 4 (f) 5 (m) drinks or more to be binge drinking
ii. For men:
1. No more than 4 drinks on any single day AND
2. no more than 14 drinks per week
iii. For women:
1. No more than 3 drinks on any single day AND
2. no more than 7 drinks per week
iv. water body difference
e. 1 hour to metabolize 1 drink
2. Identify factors that influence the risk for alcohol use disorders
a. Genetics (family history)
c. Steady drinking
d. Social and cultural factors
e. Depression and other metnal dirsords
3. Be able to talk about the scope of alcohol drinking (Li article on blackboard and slides).
a. Alchol is the most substance abused drug
b. Why are the days of the week and daily limit guidelines different?
i. Having one standard drink per day is just as risky as having 5+/4+ once a
c. What is the extent of the global problem of alcohol consumption?
d. How are low risk and high risk drinking defined? PSY 421- Exam 1 Study Guide Rutva Shah 2
e. How do we quantify the risk?
4. What is high risk drinking and what is low risk drinking? Is the criteria the same for
everyone? (Think about risk factors and that table)
a. High risk: Drinking too much too fast (binge drinking) or too much, too often (heavy drinking)
are high-risk drinking patterns that can result in harm from a number of acute and chronic
consequences (alcoholuse problems) that affect health and life.
b. Low risk: not being a binge drinker
i. But it is still a prob. If you drink 10 drinks a day but don’t reach .08 you
could still be harming yourself
ii. As your intake goes upyour severity for AUD goes up
iii. You can reach a problem without binge drinking. Even if you drink the
average amount everyday you can still have a similar outcome
iv. Is the criteria the same for everyone?
c. No, the more risk factors youhave the higher the chance you have developing
AUD in comparison to someone who has none
d. For avg. person 5+/4+ is high risk, for some one with 3 risk factors 5+/4+ is high
risk factors, but someone with 3 or more, even moderate drinking which is less
than 3 drinks can be high risk
5. Describe how laws/regulations on alcohol influence drinking patterns and alcohol use
disorders -Prohibition as example?, MLDA as example?-- short-term and long-term
consequences - (homework assignment)
a. The amethyst initiative is the movement started by a group of college
president in the effort to lower the minimum drinking age to 18. Their
rationale behind this is that allowing upper classman (usually juniors and
seniors) to drink in college while their counter part, the underclassmen
(freshmen and sophomore), aren’t allowed to drink is counterintuitive. It
instead exacerbates the in the subgroup that isn’t allowed to drink. Thus
lowering the MLDA to 18 would get rid of subgroups.
b. This study showed how the students do not necessarily hope to lower the
MLDA solely based on their opinion, but rather their behavior. According to
the study, students who were drinking hoped to vote in order to legalize their
actions. Also students who were categorized as heavy drinkers had a skewed
perspective about underage drinking, normalizing drinking to reference their
level of drinking. This data supported the idea that voters actually select their
position on the issue based on their own drinking behavior as opposed to what
is actually morally and scientifically proven as better. Thus illustrating how
lowering he MLDA wouldn’t be beneficial.
c. Traffic fatalities went down when they lincreases the MLDA, gov. would
withhold transportation grants until the state increased the drinking age
d. “lowering the MLDA to 18 would result in an additional 8 deaths per 100,000
person years for the 18–20 age group
6. How does the frequency of high risk drinking relate to the severity of an alcohol-use
a. PSY 421- Exam 1 Study Guide Rutva Shah 3
7. What is the definition of addiction?
a. The result of the adaptation in the brain that leads to changes in the behavior that
reanslates in the inability to control the intake of the drug
8. Can you be "dependent" (or show withdrawal and tolerance) from/to a substance and not
be addicted to it? Explain why. (DSM 5 criteria)
a. It was combined because in DSM 4, having a distinction between the two
diagnoses lead to a couple difficulties. In DSM 4 the disorders were diagnosed
in a hierarchical form, which lowered the reliability. Furthermore, while a
syndrome has only one symptom, almost all abuse cases were diagnosed with
one criterion for hazardous use.
b. Mainly in a study performed, they found that when they performed a factor
analysis about the dependence/abuse criteria there was only one factor formed
with 2 factors that highly correlated. Thus implying that the criteria should be
combined. Another reason is because when the abuse criteria was analyzed
alone, the test/retest reliability increased significantly. This supported the idea
that the hierarchy led to low reliability, not the criteria.
9. Explain the heuristic integrative model of alcohol addiction using an example (Dylan
from video?) in your description [Finn & Pihl (1987)].
a. It’s a model that has been proposed to explain why certain ind. Are more at risk to
AUD and how those risk factors interact
i. Inheritied tendencies
ii. lOcalized brain functions
iii. Stress from environment
iv. Alchol use and abuse
v. Childhood behavior problems
b. The adolescent addictive video
i. He had adhd and had tauma had childhood behavior problems
ii. The marijuana made him feel calm
iii. He had underlying mental disorders, which increases his impulsivity too
iv. Frontal lobe (plus or minus of situations)
v. If you have less of grey matter, associated with failure of inhibition
10. Describe on the neurobiological level the “Go/No Go” system in the brain. How is
behavior affected when this system becomes unbalanced?
a. Go / no go
i. Frontal cortex inhibits the reward center
1. Go-In addictive behavior your reward center is stronger
2. No go- frontal cortex doesn’t have time to respond to prevent the
11. Explain the role of positive and negative reinforc