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PSY 42100 Midterm: Exam 1 Study Guide

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Purdue University
PSY 42100

PSY 421- Exam 1 Study Guide Rutva Shah 1 1. Define binge drinking and standard drink sizes and their relation to blood alcohol levels; male/female differences. a. Define binge drinking i. .08 or more bac is binge drinking in a two hour drinking session is the threshold ii. car crashes iii. Injuries iv. damagethe liver and other organs b. What’s a standard drink size: i. 12% for wine and beer is 5%, 40% liquor, 4% wine cooler (but it’s a range) ii. 4 wine, 12 beer, 1.25 liqour, 12 wine cooler iii. important to know how units of alcohol are measured. Grams of alcohol is a standard unit of measurement. When comparing across beverages or even across countries..need to make sure you are talking about same amount. For example, in USA grams of alcohol in standard drink size is larger than in Australia. iv. v. Know standard drink sizes from slide and know how that relates to bac vi. .02 BAC avg drink size c. Speed at which you can become intoxicated (how long you take to consume like shot of liqueur versus beer) d. male/female differences. i. 4 (f) 5 (m) drinks or more to be binge drinking ii. For men: 1. No more than 4 drinks on any single day AND 2. no more than 14 drinks per week iii. For women: 1. No more than 3 drinks on any single day AND 2. no more than 7 drinks per week iv. water body difference v. metabolism e. 1 hour to metabolize 1 drink 2. Identify factors that influence the risk for alcohol use disorders a. Genetics (family history) b. Age c. Steady drinking d. Social and cultural factors e. Depression and other metnal dirsords 3. Be able to talk about the scope of alcohol drinking (Li article on blackboard and slides). a. Alchol is the most substance abused drug b. Why are the days of the week and daily limit guidelines different? i. Having one standard drink per day is just as risky as having 5+/4+ once a month c. What is the extent of the global problem of alcohol consumption? d. How are low risk and high risk drinking defined? PSY 421- Exam 1 Study Guide Rutva Shah 2 e. How do we quantify the risk? 4. What is high risk drinking and what is low risk drinking? Is the criteria the same for everyone? (Think about risk factors and that table) a. High risk: Drinking too much too fast (binge drinking) or too much, too often (heavy drinking) are high-risk drinking patterns that can result in harm from a number of acute and chronic consequences (alcoholuse problems) that affect health and life. b. Low risk: not being a binge drinker i. But it is still a prob. If you drink 10 drinks a day but don’t reach .08 you could still be harming yourself ii. As your intake goes upyour severity for AUD goes up iii. You can reach a problem without binge drinking. Even if you drink the average amount everyday you can still have a similar outcome iv. Is the criteria the same for everyone? c. No, the more risk factors youhave the higher the chance you have developing AUD in comparison to someone who has none d. For avg. person 5+/4+ is high risk, for some one with 3 risk factors 5+/4+ is high risk factors, but someone with 3 or more, even moderate drinking which is less than 3 drinks can be high risk 5. Describe how laws/regulations on alcohol influence drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders -Prohibition as example?, MLDA as example?-- short-term and long-term consequences - (homework assignment) a. The amethyst initiative is the movement started by a group of college president in the effort to lower the minimum drinking age to 18. Their rationale behind this is that allowing upper classman (usually juniors and seniors) to drink in college while their counter part, the underclassmen (freshmen and sophomore), aren’t allowed to drink is counterintuitive. It instead exacerbates the in the subgroup that isn’t allowed to drink. Thus lowering the MLDA to 18 would get rid of subgroups. b. This study showed how the students do not necessarily hope to lower the MLDA solely based on their opinion, but rather their behavior. According to the study, students who were drinking hoped to vote in order to legalize their actions. Also students who were categorized as heavy drinkers had a skewed perspective about underage drinking, normalizing drinking to reference their level of drinking. This data supported the idea that voters actually select their position on the issue based on their own drinking behavior as opposed to what is actually morally and scientifically proven as better. Thus illustrating how lowering he MLDA wouldn’t be beneficial. c. Traffic fatalities went down when they lincreases the MLDA, gov. would withhold transportation grants until the state increased the drinking age d. “lowering the MLDA to 18 would result in an additional 8 deaths per 100,000 person years for the 18–20 age group 6. How does the frequency of high risk drinking relate to the severity of an alcohol-use disorder? a. PSY 421- Exam 1 Study Guide Rutva Shah 3 7. What is the definition of addiction? a. The result of the adaptation in the brain that leads to changes in the behavior that reanslates in the inability to control the intake of the drug 8. Can you be "dependent" (or show withdrawal and tolerance) from/to a substance and not be addicted to it? Explain why. (DSM 5 criteria) a. It was combined because in DSM 4, having a distinction between the two diagnoses lead to a couple difficulties. In DSM 4 the disorders were diagnosed in a hierarchical form, which lowered the reliability. Furthermore, while a syndrome has only one symptom, almost all abuse cases were diagnosed with one criterion for hazardous use. b. Mainly in a study performed, they found that when they performed a factor analysis about the dependence/abuse criteria there was only one factor formed with 2 factors that highly correlated. Thus implying that the criteria should be combined. Another reason is because when the abuse criteria was analyzed alone, the test/retest reliability increased significantly. This supported the idea that the hierarchy led to low reliability, not the criteria. c. 9. Explain the heuristic integrative model of alcohol addiction using an example (Dylan from video?) in your description [Finn & Pihl (1987)]. a. It’s a model that has been proposed to explain why certain ind. Are more at risk to AUD and how those risk factors interact i. Inheritied tendencies ii. lOcalized brain functions iii. Stress from environment iv. Alchol use and abuse v. Childhood behavior problems b. The adolescent addictive video i. He had adhd and had tauma had childhood behavior problems ii. The marijuana made him feel calm iii. He had underlying mental disorders, which increases his impulsivity too iv. Frontal lobe (plus or minus of situations) v. If you have less of grey matter, associated with failure of inhibition 10. Describe on the neurobiological level the “Go/No Go” system in the brain. How is behavior affected when this system becomes unbalanced? a. Go / no go i. Frontal cortex inhibits the reward center 1. Go-In addictive behavior your reward center is stronger 2. No go- frontal cortex doesn’t have time to respond to prevent the reward 3. Gaba b. 11. Explain the role of positive and negative reinforc
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