[NUR 322] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 58 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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Quinnipiac University
NUR 322
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 20: Caring for the developing child
Influences on growth and development
Nature: describes the traits inherent in the infant biological things
Nurture: refers to the influence of external events parenting, culture, time being raised
Both influence growth and development
Principles of childhood growth and development
Growth: continuous adjustment in the size of child, internally and externally, like highest,
weight, head circumference
Development: ongoing process of adapting throughout the lifespan like Erickson developmental
stages or moral development or sexual development
3 concepts of development
- Cephalocaudal: development is a progression from head to tail top to bottom (head
control before trunk control)
- Proximodistal: development progresses from near too far and midline to periphery (head
control before fingers)
- Gross motor and fine motor skills: gross motor skills, such as running, jumping, provide the
foundation for fine motor development, such as eating, coloring or buttoning a shirt
Touchpoints
- Periods during the first 3 years
- Developmental spurts
- Disruption in the family system
Growth and Development theories
Growth and development can be discussed in terms of theoretical approaches or developmental
domains
- Theoretical approach: explains, describes and predicts the various aspects of growth and
development
- Developmental domain: refers to a way of understanding the total child in relation to the
mind, body and spirit
- Own pace: each child develops at his or her own pace and the stages are not rigid
- There is developmental variability within each child
- Nonstage theories: are less concerned with specific ages or timeframes but are focused on
the process or trajectory of developing maturity
Psychosocial development theories: Psychological and emotional progression
Sigmund Freud (psychosexual)
- 3 aspects of personality
o Id emotional part of personality (instinct present at birth and unregulated at this
time)
o Ego develops during first year of life, balance between the id and reality. Provides
a sense of identity that is separate from others and helps the child be able to
function individually
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o Superego develops between 3 and 6, helps regulate behavior. Child learns about
rules and the needs of others, it is a conscience for the child but it also helps the
child develop a sense of self
- The child progressed through developmental stages based on resolution of conflicts around
urges and rules
Erik Erikson (stages)
Each stage requires the person to overcome a conflict or a crisis in order to successfully move
onto the next stage in a healthy manner
- Child development was influenced by social interactions and not just family
- Trust vs. mistrust (trust is learned)
o Basic needs are going to be met
o Helps with confidence, self-worth and well being
- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3 years, balance independence and self-sufficiency)
o Will power, determination, choose what to wear but may not be what the parent
wants
o Child will develop self-doubt is they cannot meet this
- Initiative vs. guilt (3-6, task is to achieve resourcefulness and learn new things without
receiving self-reproach)
o Try new ideas and have parents and teaching encourage this
- Industry vs. inferiority (6 12 years, child develops a sense of confidence through mastery
of task)
- Identity vs. role confusion (12 18, time for forging ahead and acquiring a clear sense of
self)
Attachment Theories
Attachment: bond or emotional and physical connection that develops between mother and
baby
John Bowlby: stages of separation
- Attachment of mother and child
o Home base
o Phases 20-1
- Also looked at stages of separation
o Protest anxiety produced by separation
o Despair detachment a defense against the feelings associated with despair
Mary Ainsworth: strength of attachment to the mother
- Added to Bowlby
- Infant in unfamiliar settings
- Tested the strength go infants 10-24 months to their mothers
- 3 patterns
o Secure attachment cry when mothers leave, happy when they return
o Avoidant attachment rarely cries when mother leaves and avoids when mother
returns
o Ambivalent attachment becomes anxious prior to mother leaving and seeks
contact with her while pushing her away on return
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