NUR 324- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 115 pages long!)

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6 Oct 2017
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NUR 324
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Diabetes
Continuous glucose monitoring system
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, insulin pump
DKA
FPG
Gestational diabetes
Hgb A1C
Glycemic index
Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome
Hypoglycemia
Impaired fasting glucose impaired glucose tolerance test
Insulin
Ketone
Medical nutrition therapy
Nephropathy
Neuropathy
Prediabetes
Retinopathy
Self-monitoring of blood glucose
Sulfonylureas
Thiazolidiedioe’s
Definition
Dysfunction of insulin resulting in an increase in blood glucose
- Decreased secretion
- Decreased action
Insulin: glucose, glucagon and glycogen
When you eat, insulin secretion increased and moves glucose from blood into muscle live and
fat glycoge as you do’t eed it all right away
Glucagon (secreted by alpha cells)
- Released in response to decreased blood glucose, stimulating liver to release stored glucose
- Insulin and glucagon maintain constant levels of glucose by releasing more glucose from the
liver when you need it, breaking down glycogen (gycogenolysis)
Insulin
Anabolic (storage) hormone secreted by the pancreas in the islets of Langerhans
Transport and metabolize glucose for energy
Stimulates storage of glucose in the liver and muscle as glycogen
Signals the liver to stop the release of glucose
Enhances storage of fat in adipose tissue
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Accelerates transport of amino acids into cells
Inhibits the breakdown of stored glucose, protein and fats
Types of problems with insulin
Prediabetes
- If blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes
Type 1
- Body does not make enough insulin
- Beta cell destruction
- Requires insulin for life
- Risk factors
o Familial, genetic predisposition not hereditary
o Possible immunologic or environmental factors (virus/toxins)
- Clinical characteristics
o Three Ps (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia)
o Fatigue, weakness, vision changes, tingling or numbness in hands or feet, dry skin,
skin lesions or wounds that are slow to heal, recurrent infections
o Type 1 may have sudden weight loss
Type 2
- Body cannot use insulin properly
- Decrease sensitivity to insulin or impaired beta cell function -> decreased insulin production
- Slow, progressive glucose intolerance
- Treatment
o Initially with diet and exercise
o Obesity is a risk factor
o Oral hypoglycemic agents increased production of insulin or increase sensitivity
o Greater than 30 years’ old
o Increasing in childhood
- Risk factors
o Obesity
o >45
o Family history
o Race
o Previous identified impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance
o HTN >140/90
o HDL <35 or triglycerides >250
o Hx of gestational diabetes or babies over 9 pounds
Gestational
- Insulin resistance during pregnancy
- Increased risk populations
- Increased risk for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy
- TX goal: BG<105 fasting <130
1. Mothers blood brings extra glucose to fetus
2. Fetus makes more insulin to handle the extra glucose
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Document Summary

Diabetes: continuous glucose monitoring system, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, insulin pump, dka, fpg, gestational diabetes, hgb a1c, glycemic index, hyperglycemia, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, hypoglycemia. Insulin: ketone, medical nutrition therapy, nephropathy, neuropathy, prediabetes, retinopathy, self-monitoring of blood glucose, sulfonylureas, thiazolidi(cid:374)edio(cid:374)e"s. Definition: dysfunction of insulin resulting in an increase in blood glucose. Insulin: glucose, glucagon and glycogen: when you eat, insulin secretion increased and moves glucose from blood into muscle live and fat (cid:894)glycoge(cid:374)(cid:895) as you do(cid:374)"t (cid:374)eed it all right away, glucagon (secreted by alpha cells) Released in response to decreased blood glucose, stimulating liver to release stored glucose. Insulin and glucagon maintain constant levels of glucose by releasing more glucose from the liver when you need it, breaking down glycogen (gycogenolysis) Inhibits the breakdown of stored glucose, protein and fats. If blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes: type 1.

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