[PS 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 53 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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Quinnipiac University
PS 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Learning:
Learning: A relatively permanent change in an orgais’s behavior due to experiences or
practice
Learning is a biological measure- how we learn and how we store information is biological
Cognitive Measure- the thought process in our mind on how/what we want to learn
Shapes our thoughts, our language, helps us become motivated, deals with our emotions, and
alter/change our personality/behavior/beliefs
One needs to engage in different things in order to learn
How do we get into the idea of learning?
We learn by associations (association learning)
Association Learning: The certain events that occur together and we refer to this being there
are 2 stiuli’s- response and consequence
Classical Learning/Conditioning: Established by Ivan Pavlov and is a type of learning in which an
organism comes to associate through stimulus; groundwork for John Watson
Watso’s ideas had to deal ith the stiulus i it’s environment; we need to know how to
otrol hildre, it’s ho e ill lear e ideas but more importantly how we can control
behavior
John Watson is a major funder for behaviorism
Behaviorism should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental
process
Palo’s Classial Conditioning
4 major properties
1. The unconditioned Response: Unlearned naturally occurring response to the
unconditioned stimuli
2. Unconditioned Stimuli: The stimulus that unconditionally and naturally and
automatically triggers a response
3. Condition Response: The learned response to a previously natural but now conditioned
stimulus
4. Conditioned Stimulus: Unoriginal, unrelated stimulus that after associated with an
unconditioned stimulus causes to trigger a condition response
ROYGBIV- the order of the rainbow; from this, we were able to make out a 5 major conditioning
procedure
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1. Acquisition: the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral
stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus is that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a
conditioned response.
2. Extinction: If the stimulus ends the response is forgotten
3. Spontaneous Recovery: A recovery phase; when there is a long enough association
between the stimulus and response. After stimulus has been neglected or unheard we
loose the response but again herd/stimulated the response when in cover
4. Generalizable: These phases can be generalized to the majority of individuals; can be
repeated
5. Discrimination (Era phase): Some individuals will not respond to some stimuli they
do’t like
What can we take from all of this? Many things can be influenced on learning; biopsychology
Watso took Palo’s lassial oditioig ad ated to otrol speifi ehaiors uder
some testers
B.F Skinner born 1904 died in 1990. Operate conditioning Has different forms of associated
learning, but adds reinforcements so the good behavior continues and bad behavior stops
Skinner Box (Skinner chamber): Talks about operate learning not conditional learning. Shapes
reinforcement guided behaviors to try to control the orgais’s ehaiors. This otrol is for
desired behaviors. *We continue to do this in our own lives* (never a person)
Operate Behavior- behavior that operates on environment through processes of consequences.
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened by a reinforce or is diminished if followed
by a punisher
Three are 2 major types of reinforces
1) Positive Reinforcement: where we hand out a positive stimulus
2) Negative Reinforcement: soe type of puishet or soethig the idiidual does’t
enjoy
Skinner wanted to take this further and started to define specific areas of reinforcement
- Primary Reinforcement: the reinforcement by a stimulus and used biological needs or
situations
- Conditioned Reinforcement: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing powers through its
primary reinforcements with association
You need to be constant and in equal in order for this to work
4 different schedules:
- Fixed: a reinforcing response only after a specific number of responses
- Veritable: reinforcing a response after an unpredictable number of responses
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