[SO 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 23 pages long Study Guide!

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Quinnipiac University
SO 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
Understanding Sociology
Guiding Points:
- What is sociology?
- The development of sociology
- Major theoretical perspectives
- Taking sociology with you
Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses on social
relatioships; ho those relatioships ifluee people’s ehaior; ad ho soieties, the su
total of those relationships, develop and change
Sociological Imagination was created by C. Wright Mills and is an awareness of the relationship
between an individual and the winder society, both today and in the past
- Key Eleet: the aility to ie oe’s o soiety as a outsider ould, rather tha
only from the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases
- Allows us to go beyond personal experiences and observations to understand broader
public issues
Science refers to the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic
observations
Theory is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
Auguste Comte believed that a theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of
behavior were needed to improve society. Established the term sociology to apply the science
of human behavior
Anomie refers to the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of an individual
behavior has become ineffective
Max Weber established the ideal type, which is a construct or model for evaluating specific
cases
Karl Marx prepared The Communist Manifesto which argued that people with no resources
other than work should unite to fight for the overthrow of capitalist societies. Emphasized
group idetifiatio ad assoiatios, hih ifluee a idiidual’s plae i soiety
W.E.B. DuBois saw the importance of religion to society and thought that sociologists needed
to study scientific principles to study social problems
- Doule Cosiousess: the diisio of a idiidual’s idetity i to or ore soial
realities
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Charles Horton Cooley used the sociological perspective to study the small intimate face-to-
face groups (families, gangs, and friend groups)
Jane Addams was a leader of the settlement houses. She combined intellectual inquiry, social
service work, and political activism hoping to help the underprivileged
Robert Merton contributed to the discipline by combining theory and research
Social Capital: The collective benefit of social networks, which are built upon reciprocal trust
Functionalist Perspective: Emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to
maintain its stability
Manifest and Latent Functions: Of institutions, they are open, stated, and conscious functions.
They involve the intended, recognized consequences of an aspect of society (such as the
uiersity’s role i certifying academic competence and excellence). Latent functions are
unconscious or unintended functions that might reflect hidden purposes of an institution
Dysfunction: An element or process of a society that may disrupt the social system or reduce its
stability
example is a homicide because its undesirable
Conflict Perspective: Assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension
between groups over power or the allocation of resources including housing, money, access to
services, political representation
The Marxist View: Conflict is a part of everyday life in all societies
The Feminist Perspective: Sees inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organizations
Interactionist Perspective: Generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to
explain society as a whole.
Applied Sociology: The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding
practical applications for human behavior and organizations.
Globalization is the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements,
and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas.
Social Inequality: A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth,
prestige, or power.
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