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SO 101 Final: SO101 Final Notes

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SO 101

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION • The way society divides people into groups • The impactofhavingresources vs. not having resources • Social stratification is the divisionofthe entire categories of people based intheir relative power, property, and prestige o Youcan alsosay thatit’s the study ofinequality • Closed System o Bornintoyourpositionin society andyou CANNOT move out ifit(it ispermanent) o Ascribed Status: Overwhatthey have nocontrol ▪ Such as religion one is borninto,theirrace, gender,or $$family has o Closed is based off of ascribed status(feudal, caste) • Open System o One inwhich youcan move in o Ascribed status stillmattersbut doesnotdetermine ifyou can move upor down o Achieved Status: where youare atyou’re peak inlife o Education(combinedascribed andachieved) o Hasa lot ofmobility ▪ IntergenerationalMobility: movementbetween generations • IE) a poor fatherraises his son whobecomes asurgeon ▪ Intragenerational Mobility: movementwithin alifetime • Frombeinga poor farmer to a wealthy businessman • Social Stratification isuseful andinevitable because it is sowide spread • FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE: o Social Stratification isimportant ▪ Mostimportantstatus: • Achieved (useful& inevitable) • Argue that the reward mustbe better thanthe cost –because itwill motivated people todo it ▪ Froma functionalistperspective, we believe thatallthese values are shared – shouldbe STABLE overtime • CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE: o Oursystem should based onachieved statusbut isbasedon anascribed status ▪ Argue thatwe should have anopen system butitsmore closed thananything ▪ Conflictsbetweenpeople who have wealthandthose whodon’t • More ability toexplore • Battle betweenhavesand have nots • Useful tosome butnot others ▪ Conflict oversocialresources • Servesthe interestsof the powerful • Reflectsthe interests of those at the top o I.e.) why isahomelessperson poor? ▪ Because, they should be able to support themselves ▪ Unlikely to remainstable over time • Uni-dimensionalView o KarlMarx o Economic Position  Position insociety (SocialStatus) o Capitalism ▪ $Profit ▪ MinimalGov’t regulationof business “laiseezfaire” –little to nogovernment regulation ▪ Private Property o Contemporary Capitalism ▪ Some gov’tregulation o Ownsthe meansof production, CEOs, etc. ▪ Bourgeoisie o Don’townmeansofproduction,they have laborers ▪ Proletariat • Workersget paid less  cutquality  raise the price • Poor  not sohealthy o Smoking, badeating habits, stress o Public schooling  don’t have the resourcesto get a better education ▪ Children whoattended public schoolswere lessprepared than those who attend private schools • Functionalist: o Evenwithclass, individual effortisthe reasonwhy people do well • Conflict: o Unequal distributionargue thatthese are structural imbalances that prevents people from movingahead • UpperClass o 5–7% o 200,000$$ o UpperUpperClass(new) o Lower Upper Class(old) • Middle Class o $40K – 200K o UpperMiddle: 100K –200K ▪ 20% o Lower middle: 40K –100K ▪ 40% • WorkingClass o 20% o 20K –40K • Lower Class o 15% o Lessthan $20K o Working poor –work butdo notmake enough o UnderClass–chronically unemployed,junkies, bums, decayingneighborhoods(skeptical about the system) • Is class or race apredictor of wealth? o 5.8% ofwhite people live below the poverty level o 19.4% African Americansbelow poverty level o 15.6% LatinAmerican below poverty level o Why isthere adisproportionate amount ofAfricanAmerican’slivingbelow the poverty level? o Age Distribution ▪ White –39 ▪ African American–32 ▪ Latinos–27 o Unemployment ▪ White –4.4% ▪ Africans– 10.1% o Higher proportionoffemale headed households ▪ Single moms –the poorestgroupinAmerica o Family inpoverty ▪ Married –8% ▪ Single Dad– 22% ▪ Single Mom–30% ▪ Higher divorce rate amongpoor o Occupational Segregation ▪ Doctors –5.8% ▪ Lawyers–4/3% ▪ Finance –8.4% ▪ Architects –5.2% ▪ Barbers –37.2% ▪ Postal–29.5% ▪ Security- 28.8% ▪ Nursing 34.6% o DiscriminationManagement ▪ White are discriminated againstless than black across the board • Gender and Earnings o Functionalistsbelieve that inequality stems fromrewardsbecause the rewardsneedto motivate people o Onaverage, women make 83% ofwhat men make ▪ Functionalist • Menmake more because they have more • Humancapitalinvested in their work o Education, training, skills ▪ Inequality is fairbecause men have more invested ▪ Conflict • StatisticalDiscrimination o Women earn lessbecause of discrimination ▪ Difference of$108in men’sv women’spaychecks who didnothave a HSdegree ▪ $175inthose withaHS degree ▪ $284inthose withaBA ▪ $445inthose withanadvanced degree ▪ Elementary/ Middle School - 82% female ▪ SocialWorkers– 82% ▪ Nurses–90% ▪ Receptionist– 92% ▪ Preschool/Kindergarten –98% ▪ Surgeons–33% ▪ Lawyers–33% ▪ Chief Executives –24% ▪ Pilots– 4% o Ifmen andwomen are inthe same positionsshouldn’tthey make the same amount of money? o Have tokeep seniority ▪ When women are incompanies that offerreasonable benefits –they tend tostay in those jobs ▪ The “mommy” factor • Parents can take off for ayear ▪ Structural arrangement –the “child” penalty –depresses wages • IntergroupRelations o Prejudice – anattitude prejudginga groupbasedon thisascribed status(attitude towards andentire group) o Discrimination –unequal treatmentof their group(nothiring someone because oftheirrace orreligion) o Take actionbasedon prejudice • LaPierre (1934) o FieldExperiment ▪ Traveled aroundwithaChinese couple to see how they are treated (to see ifthey wouldbe refused) • 250+ restaurantsandhotels • Only one place they were refused service butwhen askedif they would service Chinese customers 90% said they wouldn’t • Control group o Itispossible for someone tobe prejudice ornot Discrimination YES NO • Prejudice - yes active bigots timid bigots No fairweather allweather LIBERAL LIBERALS • Racism– one group is inferior toanotherandunequal treatmentis justified • Anti– Semitism – Jewsare inferior toother • Homophobia –fearor hatredofgay people • Levelofprejudice towardscertaingroups • Personality o Authoritarianpersonality – bigotliberal (family environment)
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