Exam 1 study guide for Psych 121

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PSYC - Psychology
PSYC 121
Lindsey Pittington

EXAM 1 Study Guide - Early history and development of psychology - Definition of Psychology: The science of behavior and mental processes - The various fields of psychology (i.e. Industrial/Organizational, Behavioral, Psychodynamic, 
 Sociocultural, Biological, Experimental, etc.)
 I/O: take psychology to the workplace to train employees, boost morale and productivity, to help the “hiring process”….business Behavioral: focus on how we learn and observable responses Psychodynamic: focuses on the result of unconscious emotions Sociocultural: examine variations in thoughts and behaviors across cultures “influences/thoughts” Biological: focus on genetics Experimental: Clinical: treat more severe mental and behavioral disorders Counseling: daily advice and improving life Biosychosocial: how biological, psychological, and social processes can shape your personality… o Famous people associated with specific fields of psychology (i.e. Freud, Watson, Skinner) Philosophers: Aristotle “ideas on behavior” and Rene Descartes “how mind and body interact” Willhelm Wundt: performed first psychology experiment in his lab in Germany father of psychology Sigmund Freud: the idea of psychoanalysis B.F. Skinner and J.B Watson: behaviorism, basis of modern psychology Carl Rogers: Humanistic psychology - Basic vs. applied psychological research. Applied: helps tackle real life problems, helps with predicting/improving behavior Basic: builds on psychology’s knowledge base “gives us more information to try to describe/explain behavior” - Differences between psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and other practicing mental health 
 professionals (and what educational degrees they most often receive, such as Master’s (M.A./M.S), Bachelor’s (B.A/B.S), Ph.D, Medical Degree (M.D.), Psy.D (Psychology Doctorate) 
 Psychiatrists: can prescribe drugs (M.D.) Clinical psychologists: talk to people but cannot prescribe drugs Ph.D School Psychology: counselor (M.A/M.S) I/O Psychology: help in the workplace (B.A/B.S) Experimental Psychology: try to explain things we do not understand in brain Psy D. Research Methods and Designs 
 - Correlations 
 o Definition : a way of showing that a relationship may exist between two variables 
 o Positive vs Negative Correlations
 Positive: range from 0-1 (always positive), direct relationship for two variables, always move together Negative: range from -1-0 (always negative), inverse relationship, variables move in opposite directions o Can you give examples of a correlational research study? Ice cream drowning (third variable/confounding variable is heat) 
 o Correlational research vs Experiments (hint: correlation and causation) Correlational Research: generally have to discover the third variable in order to see the trend Experiments: have to test multiple times in order to find a pattern - Scientific Method (theory vs. hypothesis, experimental and control groups) theory: what you think about something Hypothesis: ask a question and try to solve a problem Experimental groups: groups in which something is changed Control groups: groups which remain the same throughout the experiment - Sample vs Population Sample: a group of people selected from population Population: every person meeting the characteristics of your study - Random Sample vs Random Assignment Random sample: when trying to get sample to be representative of population in a study, are considered representative, results generalize to population= external validity Random assignement: in experiments, randomly assign people to experimental/control. Equal chance of choosing, no factors are affecting study, only indeppendant variable can change dependant variable=internal validity - Independent Variable vs Dependent Variable Independent Variable: variable in experiment that can be manipulated Dependent Variable: variable that must stay the same in order to maintain continuity - Data collection methods
 o Natural Observation vs. case study vs. survey (can you give examples of each?) Case Study: in depth study of rare phen
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