Exam 3 Study Guide for Psych 121

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PSYC - Psychology
PSYC 121
Lindsey Pittington

Exam 3 Study Guide Classical Conditioning  Behaviorism, notable figures in Behavioral psychology  What is associative learning? The brain links certain events together  What is classical conditioning? o Know Pavlov’s study The dog drooling when he saw food o Unconditioned response o Dog drooling o Unconditioned stimulus o food o Conditioned response o bell o Conditioned stimulus o Dog drooling at bell because he believes he will get food after o Neutral stimulus Bell tone, with food and dog drooling  Be able to identify these in various scenarios  Be familiar with the Little Albert experiment  What is Extinction? When something dies Operant Conditioning  What is operant conditioning? Behavior we can control  What are the differences between OC and CC? OC is decided by things we choose, CC is involuntary  What is reinforcement? Something good or bad received to influence a certain behavior o What is positive reinforcement? Anything that increases the likelihood of behavior occurring, adding something o What is negative reinforcement? Decreases the behavior from occurring, taking something away  Continuous versus partial/intermittent reinforcement and effects on learning and extinction o Types of partial reinforcement (identify examples)  Fixed ratio- set number of responses  Variable ratio- unpredictable number of responses  Fixed interval- first response after fixed time period  Variable interval- first response after varying time intervals  What is punishment? o What is positive punishment? Spanking a child o What is negative punishment? Take something away as punishment  What are the key differences between punishment and reinforcement Punishment is suppressed, reinforcement is given Learning by Observation  What is modeling? Basing our personalities on others behavior  Be familiar with Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment Children would follow the aggression showed by parents Memory  What is memory? The persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of information  Atkinson and Shiffrin’s 3-stage model of memory Sensory memory, working memory, long term memory Sensory: the immediate , very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Working: the active and conscious processing of incoming visual, auditory and spatial info Long term: relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system  What is encoding? Where in the 3-stage model does it occur? The processing of information into the memory system Happens in between each memory stage  Automatic versus effortful processing Effortfall: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Automatic: things that we automatically remember without effort  Primacy vs Recency effects  Types of encoding, what gets encoded  Chunking Combine things to make it easyer to remember in code, SSN  Mneumonics  What is sensory memory? o What is iconic and echoic memory? Iconic: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli Echoic memory: A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli  Short term vs long-term memory  What are flashbulb memories? A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event  Implicit versus explicit memories Implicit: retention independent of conscious recollection Explicit: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”  What roles do the hippocampus and cerebellum play in memory? Hippocampus: helps process explicit memories for storage Cerebellum: responsible for implicit memory storage  Recall versus recognition Recall: could answer on a fill in the blank question Recognition: can answer if a multiple question quiz  What are retrieval cues? o Context effects Putting yourself back in context where you experienced something can help recall o Moods What we learn in one state can be best recalled in that same state Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory  Why do we forget? o Encoding Failure When your memories fail to continue into other memory sources o Storage Decay Our storage capacity is vast but it gets dusty over time o Retrieval Failure When stored information cannot be accessed  Be familiar with Loftus’ study on memory: Her questionnaire about bugs bunny at disney o Know the implications of these studies and what the results suggest People can be led to have different memories Personality: Psychoanalytic Perspective  What is personality? What arises from an internal conflict between impulses and restraint  What is free association? A way of exploring the unconscious through free, ”unthinking” speech or writing  What is Psychoanalysis? To treat psychological disorders, attempts to bring out and then interpret unconscious tensio
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