Exam 3 Study Guide
Behaviorism, notable figures in Behavioral psychology
What is associative learning?
The brain links certain events together
What is classical conditioning?
o Know Pavlov’s study
The dog drooling when he saw food
o Unconditioned response
o Dog drooling
o Unconditioned stimulus
o Conditioned response
o Conditioned stimulus
o Dog drooling at bell because he believes he will get food after
o Neutral stimulus
Bell tone, with food and dog drooling
Be able to identify these in various scenarios
Be familiar with the Little Albert experiment
What is Extinction?
When something dies
What is operant conditioning?
Behavior we can control
What are the differences between OC and CC?
OC is decided by things we choose, CC is involuntary
What is reinforcement?
Something good or bad received to influence a certain behavior
o What is positive reinforcement?
Anything that increases the likelihood of behavior occurring, adding something
o What is negative reinforcement?
Decreases the behavior from occurring, taking something away
Continuous versus partial/intermittent reinforcement and effects on learning and extinction
o Types of partial reinforcement (identify examples)
Fixed ratio- set number of responses
Variable ratio- unpredictable number of responses
Fixed interval- first response after fixed time period
Variable interval- first response after varying time intervals
What is punishment?
o What is positive punishment?
Spanking a child
o What is negative punishment? Take something away as punishment
What are the key differences between punishment and reinforcement
Punishment is suppressed, reinforcement is given
Learning by Observation
What is modeling?
Basing our personalities on others behavior
Be familiar with Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment
Children would follow the aggression showed by parents
What is memory?
The persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of information
Atkinson and Shiffrin’s 3-stage model of memory
Sensory memory, working memory, long term memory
Sensory: the immediate , very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Working: the active and conscious processing of incoming visual, auditory and spatial info
Long term: relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
What is encoding? Where in the 3-stage model does it occur?
The processing of information into the memory system
Happens in between each memory stage
Automatic versus effortful processing
Effortfall: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Automatic: things that we automatically remember without effort
Primacy vs Recency effects
Types of encoding, what gets encoded
Combine things to make it easyer to remember in code, SSN
What is sensory memory?
o What is iconic and echoic memory?
Iconic: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
Echoic memory: A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Short term vs long-term memory
What are flashbulb memories?
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Implicit versus explicit memories
Implicit: retention independent of conscious recollection
Explicit: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”
What roles do the hippocampus and cerebellum play in memory?
Hippocampus: helps process explicit memories for storage
Cerebellum: responsible for implicit memory storage
Recall versus recognition
Recall: could answer on a fill in the blank question Recognition: can answer if a multiple question quiz
What are retrieval cues?
o Context effects
Putting yourself back in context where you experienced something can help recall
What we learn in one state can be best recalled in that same state
Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Improving Memory
Why do we forget?
o Encoding Failure
When your memories fail to continue into other memory sources
o Storage Decay
Our storage capacity is vast but it gets dusty over time
o Retrieval Failure
When stored information cannot be accessed
Be familiar with Loftus’ study on memory:
Her questionnaire about bugs bunny at disney
o Know the implications of these studies and what the results suggest
People can be led to have different memories
What is personality?
What arises from an internal conflict between impulses and restraint
What is free association?
A way of exploring the unconscious through free, ”unthinking” speech or writing
What is Psychoanalysis?
To treat psychological disorders, attempts to bring out and then interpret unconscious tensio