Exam 4 Study Guide
Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders
• What is the definition of “psychological disorder”?
Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions
• What do psychologists use to classify mental disorders?
The “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders” also known as the DSM-IV-TR
Anxiety, Dissociative, and Personality Disorders
• What is an anxiety disorder?
When a person experiences distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
• What characterizes general anxiety disorder?
Continually feeling tense and uneasy, getting anxious over things very easily, difficulty with making
• What is a panic disorder and what symptoms are experienced?
A “panic tornado”, sudden on-set episodes of intense dread
• What is a phobia?
An intense, often irrational fear, avoidance of object, activity, or situation
• What is OCD?
o What are obsessions?
Having repetitive thoughts
o What are compulsions?
• What is PTSD?
Lingering memories/nightmares or sudden panics for weeks or years after traumatic events
• Know the different ways we can explain anxiety disorders (Learning, conditioning, etc)
Conditioned fear- when bad things happen unpredictably and uncontrollably, anxiety can develop
Stimulus generalization: traumatic event can result in fear that can extend out towards similar stimuli
• What are dissociative disorders?
Conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, feelings
May experience sudden loss of memory or change in identity (often in response to some trauma or
• What are personality disorders?
• What are the two types of mood disorders?
Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
• What are the symptoms of major depressive disorder?
Lethargy, loss of interest, changes in sleep patterns, feelings of worthlessness
• Mania versus depression
Mania- elation, euphoria, hyperactive, multiple ideas
Depression- gloomy, withdrawn, tired, inability to make decisions
• What is schizophrenia? A disorder that lasts at least 6 months and includes at least 1 month of active-phase symptoms
• What are some positive symptoms?
Disorganized speech, catatonic behavior
• What are some negative symptoms?
Social withdrawal, emotional flattening
• What are delusions?
Distortions of thought content
• What are hallucinations?
Distortions of perception
Chapter 14: The Psychological Therapies
• What is psychotherapy?
• What is eclectic therapy?
Therapy utilizing multiplt methods, depending on the patient and case
o Key figure
o What does the id, ego, superego have to do with this therapy?
Try to resolve the conflict between these three “people”
o What is resistance, transference, interpretation?
How we interpret things, how we resist thinking about things and transferr our emotions to our
o What are psychoanalytical therapy’s main goals?
Try to gain insights to disorders and bring subconscious to light
• Psychodynamic therapy
o What do these therapists focus on?
Themes across relationships
o What are the differences between Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic approaches?
Psychodynamic more positive and focused on relationships
• Humanistic therapy
o Key figure(s)
o What do these therapists aim to do with clients?
o What is the focus on (past, present future?)
Present and future
o Know how therapist interacts with clients (i.e. not interrupting, interpreting; active listening,
o Client-Centered therapy
Genuine, accepting and empathetic
o What are the differences between Humanistic and Psychoanalysis approaches?
Growth/curing, conscious/unconscious, future/past
• Behavior therapies
o What are considered the problem?
The actual problem behaviors
o How are the principles of learning relevant to behavioral therapy?
Use counterconditioning and other ideas to help stop bad behavior from cropping up
o What is counterconditioning? Create new, healthier associations
o What is exposure therapy?
Exposes people to visual stimuli, generally through virtual reality
What is systematic desensitization?
Substituting a positive response for a negative one through time
o What is aversive conditioning?
Associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
o What are token economies?
when do something good, receive a token which can be traded in for prizes
• Cognitive therapy
o What is it helpful with?
Major depression, eating disorders etc.
o What is the goal?
Gide people towards new ways of explaining their good and bad experiences
o What is Beck’s Therapy for Depression?
People can change the way they think and therefore c