Exam 4 Study Guide for Psych 121

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PSYC - Psychology
PSYC 121
Lindsey Pittington

Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorders • What is the definition of “psychological disorder”? Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions • What do psychologists use to classify mental disorders? The “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders” also known as the DSM-IV-TR Anxiety, Dissociative, and Personality Disorders • What is an anxiety disorder? When a person experiences distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety • What characterizes general anxiety disorder? Continually feeling tense and uneasy, getting anxious over things very easily, difficulty with making decisions • What is a panic disorder and what symptoms are experienced? A “panic tornado”, sudden on-set episodes of intense dread • What is a phobia? An intense, often irrational fear, avoidance of object, activity, or situation • What is OCD? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder o What are obsessions? Having repetitive thoughts o What are compulsions? Ritualized behavior • What is PTSD? Lingering memories/nightmares or sudden panics for weeks or years after traumatic events • Know the different ways we can explain anxiety disorders (Learning, conditioning, etc) Conditioned fear- when bad things happen unpredictably and uncontrollably, anxiety can develop Stimulus generalization: traumatic event can result in fear that can extend out towards similar stimuli • What are dissociative disorders? Conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, feelings May experience sudden loss of memory or change in identity (often in response to some trauma or stress) • What are personality disorders? Mood Disorders • What are the two types of mood disorders? Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder • What are the symptoms of major depressive disorder? Lethargy, loss of interest, changes in sleep patterns, feelings of worthlessness • Mania versus depression Mania- elation, euphoria, hyperactive, multiple ideas Depression- gloomy, withdrawn, tired, inability to make decisions Schizophrenia • What is schizophrenia? A disorder that lasts at least 6 months and includes at least 1 month of active-phase symptoms • What are some positive symptoms? Disorganized speech, catatonic behavior • What are some negative symptoms? Social withdrawal, emotional flattening • What are delusions? Distortions of thought content • What are hallucinations? Distortions of perception Chapter 14: The Psychological Therapies Psychotherapy • What is psychotherapy? • What is eclectic therapy? Therapy utilizing multiplt methods, depending on the patient and case • Psychoanalysis o Key figure Freud o What does the id, ego, superego have to do with this therapy? Try to resolve the conflict between these three “people” o What is resistance, transference, interpretation? How we interpret things, how we resist thinking about things and transferr our emotions to our therapist o What are psychoanalytical therapy’s main goals? Try to gain insights to disorders and bring subconscious to light • Psychodynamic therapy o What do these therapists focus on? Themes across relationships o What are the differences between Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic approaches? Psychodynamic more positive and focused on relationships • Humanistic therapy o Key figure(s) Carl Rogers o What do these therapists aim to do with clients? Promote growth o What is the focus on (past, present future?) Present and future o Know how therapist interacts with clients (i.e. not interrupting, interpreting; active listening, paraphrasing, etc) o Client-Centered therapy Genuine, accepting and empathetic o What are the differences between Humanistic and Psychoanalysis approaches? Growth/curing, conscious/unconscious, future/past • Behavior therapies o What are considered the problem? The actual problem behaviors o How are the principles of learning relevant to behavioral therapy? Use counterconditioning and other ideas to help stop bad behavior from cropping up o What is counterconditioning? Create new, healthier associations o What is exposure therapy? Exposes people to visual stimuli, generally through virtual reality  What is systematic desensitization? Substituting a positive response for a negative one through time o What is aversive conditioning? Associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior o What are token economies? when do something good, receive a token which can be traded in for prizes • Cognitive therapy o What is it helpful with? Major depression, eating disorders etc. o What is the goal? Gide people towards new ways of explaining their good and bad experiences o What is Beck’s Therapy for Depression? People can change the way they think and therefore c
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