[SPED 08130] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (32 pages long!)

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Rowan University
SPED 08130
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 3 Notes
Section 1: The Diverse Landscape
-Schools are becoming increasingly more diverse with time (Graph showing data pg 58 and 59)
-Public Schools enrolled 49.4 million students in the 2010-2011 school year, where 25.9 million
(52.4%) were white and the rest were students of color
-Students of Color: A broad term that encompasses students from African American, Hispanic,
Asian American, or nAtive American backgrounds
-English Language Learner (ELL), English Learner (EL), Limited English Proficient (LEP), or
Language Minority Students: Students learning English as their second language
Majority of these people speak Spanish
-In the 1800s the country was composed of people from many other countries making non-
English or dual language instruction common
-End of 1900s immigrants from southern, central, and eastern Europe were mainly catholic
began arriving
-Nativism: A strong opposition to immigration, which is seen as a threat to maintaining a
country’s dominant culture (many thinking this way were immigrants themselves) wanting to
“protect” the American culture
-Newer immigrants were treated with suspicion and distrust, instruction in languages other than
English were prohibited in many schools and children ultimately did not do well with academics
-Melting pot: Concept of homogenized US; cultural traditions and home languages are
abandoned for the new American culture
-“Americanization” led to the idea of a melting pot
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-The Civil Rights Movement (1950s and 1960s) brought attention to new immigrant groups
experiencing racism, segregation, and aggression towards them— even groups who lived in the
country for centuries were bashed (ex. Native Americans and African Americans)
-Cultural Pluralism: All cultural groups are valued components of the society; language and
traditions of each group are maintained (1960s)
-Multicultural Education: Incorporates the cultures of all students into instruction (1980s)
Encouraging all students to participate and respect one anothers cultures through
communication
Section 2: Issues of Social Justice
-In 1982 the supreme court made a Texas case for whether Mexican children living in Texas
without correct documentation had the right for free public school education
Case name- Phyler vs Doe
Ruling was children do not have the right
-In 1994 California voters passed Proposition 187 prohibiting undocumented immigrants from
receiving any public benefits (including school)— later ruled illegal by federal government
-Undocumented minors who have lived in the US most of their lives cannot qualify for college
student loans through fed government, receive financial aid, or instate tuition
-Achievement Gap: The situation in which students from certain backgrounds (ex. racially/
culturally/ linguistically marginalized, low-income) have much lower school and learning
outcomes than their dominant-society or higher-income peers
-Sociocultural disadvantages (poverty and low levels of parental education) create hardships
Ex: food insecurity, insufficient, unsafe, or temporary housing, and lack of health care
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