Intro to Archeology 105
CH1 — History of Archeology
The Beginnings of Archeology: the Three Age System
1. C.J. Thompson published in English in 1848 “Guide to Northern Archeology”.
2. He proposed that museum collections be divided into those coming from the -
Stone Age Bronze Age and Iron Age.
3. Later on, the Stone Age was divided in to the Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) and the
Neolithic (New Stone Age).
4. However, this system was not applicable to Sub-Saharan Africa or to the Americas.
5. This system however showed that by studying and classifying archeological
artefacts, it is possible to establish a chronological order.
Ethnography and Early Civilisations
1. Around 1870, they realised that ethnographers studying living communities could
contribute to the study of ancient societies.
2. At the same time, ethnographers like Tyler and Morgan were arguing that human
societies evolved from savagery (primitive hunting) through barbarism (simple
farming to civilisation.
3. Through the 19th century, major archeological discovery took place —
-Champolion deciphering of the Rosetta Stone (1822)
-Rawlinson cracking of the Cruciform Code (1850)
-Stephen Discovery of ancient Maya’s ruins (1840)
-Schiemann excavation of Troy (1870) and Mycenae (1880)
-Marshal Taxila (Indus Valley Civilisation) (1920)
Classiﬁcation and Consolidation
1. End of the 19th century until 1960, there was focus and establishment of