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[01:070:105] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (69 pages long)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
01:070:105
Professor
Cabanes
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:070:105
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Friday, 9 September 2016
Intro to Archeology 105
CH1 — History of Archeology
The Beginnings of Archeology: the Three Age System
1. C.J. Thompson published in English in 1848 “Guide to Northern Archeology”.
2. He proposed that museum collections be divided into those coming from the -
Stone Age Bronze Age and Iron Age.
3. Later on, the Stone Age was divided in to the Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) and the
Neolithic (New Stone Age).
4. However, this system was not applicable to Sub-Saharan Africa or to the Americas.
5. This system however showed that by studying and classifying archeological
artefacts, it is possible to establish a chronological order.
Ethnography and Early Civilisations
1. Around 1870, they realised that ethnographers studying living communities could
contribute to the study of ancient societies.
2. At the same time, ethnographers like Tyler and Morgan were arguing that human
societies evolved from savagery (primitive hunting) through barbarism (simple
farming to civilisation.
3. Through the 19th century, major archeological discovery took place —
-Champolion deciphering of the Rosetta Stone (1822)
-Rawlinson cracking of the Cruciform Code (1850)
-Stephen Discovery of ancient Maya’s ruins (1840)
-Schiemann excavation of Troy (1870) and Mycenae (1880)
-Marshal Taxila (Indus Valley Civilisation) (1920)
Classification and Consolidation
1. End of the 19th century until 1960, there was focus and establishment of
chronological systems.
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Friday, 9 September 2016
2. This led to the development of chronological sequences of early civilisations.
3. In the USA, James A. Ford develops the Midwestern Taxonomic System:
correlates to archeological sequences.
4. Gordon Childe compared Old World sequences. Childe had many questions
including the main ones —
-To wh at period do these artefacts date?
-With which other materials do they belong (assemblage)?
-Whom did these artefacts belong to (culture)?
-The major question Childe asked was — WHY did things change in the past?
-He proposed the idea of Neolithic Revolution to explain why hunter gatherers
started to become farmers. {They did so to support their exponentially increasing
populations}.
The Ecological Approach
1. Julian Steward - Cultural Ecology: cultures interact with each other but also with the
environment.
2. Gordon Willey
-Virú Valley, Perú, 1940
-1500 years of pre-Columbian occupation combining survey, escavation,
maps and aerial photography.
-Studied the settlement patterns against the changing local environment.
3. Grahame Clarke
-Star Carr, England, 1950
-Multidisciplinary research team (bones and plants).
-Studied how human populations adapted to their environments.
Important names
Darwin
Thompsen
Childe
Grahame Clarke
Libby
Binford
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