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Extinction Final Study Guide Fall 2013.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
01:070:111
Professor
Professor Scott

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Extinction2013−FinalExamReview Sheet • Sixth Mass Extinction o Holocene – present o 1.3% of mammal species extinct o At least 20% in half of mammalian orders • Glacial o Ice sheets o Colder o Drier o Dustier o Longer and stepwise o within Glacial periods: Hienrich and Dansgard events occurred (Variation) o Interglacial: Less variation in climate and its warmer • ANaturalist’s Paradise ( Madagascar ) o Varied environments help maintain high levels of biodiversity o Long isolation has led to high levels of unique biodiversity (endemism)  52% of bird species  80% of flowering plants  95% of reptiles  99% of amphibians • 100% of primate species are endemic • >100 extant species, 5 families • So lemurs are extremely diverse in: o Total number of species o Phylogenetic distinctiveness o Number of species unique to their environment • Biodiversity hotspot: is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans. ( Madagascar ) Endemic fauna: Fauna exclusive to their niche. Born and raised in so and so. • Anthropogenic: Created by humans or caused by human activity ( i.e. pollution ) Relationship between timescale and extinctions Relationship between extinctions and human lineage • Homo floresiensis: stood three foot tall; discovered in Flores, Indonesia. o Discovered in the island of Flores in Indonesia o (around)~extinct 12,000 years ago o 3 feet tall • Multiregional Evolution o Under the Multiregional evolution hypothesis, the first humans to leave Africa 1.8 million years ago never divided into different species. Instead, these populations always exchanged genes with each other through recurrent gene flow. Today, we are part of this same species, which has evolved greatly over time to a very different morphology and behavior from the first humans. (*not from slides found on online article*) • Out of Africa Model o Under the Out ofAfrica hypothesis, the first humans to leaveAfrica 1.8 million years ago divided into several different species during the Pleistocene. Species, of course, are defined by reproductive isolation, so the evolution of these several species of humans was separate. The fossil archaic humans that we find throughout the Old World belonged to these several species, but only one branch of this ancient family tree could give rise to today's humanity. (*not from slides found on online article*) • Denisovans: Paleolithic-era members of a species of Homo or subspecies of Homo sapiens. In March 2010, scientists announced the discovery of a finger bone fragment of a juvenile female who lived about 41,000 years ago, found in the remote Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, a cave which has also been inhabited by Neanderthals and modern humans • Anatomically modern human (AMH) origins o Upper Paleolithic Explosion Upper Paleolithic era dates from 50,000- 10,000 years ago o Upper Paleolithic is late StoneAge (when primitive humans started developing stone tools) Creative explosion: (i couldnt find what the “explosion” was about if anyone could add onto this it would be helpful Explosion might be referring to cultural explosion?) got it from my own notes. · Upper Paleolithic Explosion circa 45,000 years ago o It’· Upper Paleolithic Explosion circa 45,000 years ago • It’s a hominin thing, cultural explosion, weapons, cave paintings (Concepts that need definitions or explanations) l periods within an ice age. Holocene climate: was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years B.P. Humans make it to theAmericas? - over the Bering strait (from Russia throughAlaska) Relationship between timescale, humans,American megafauna Climate change vs human arrival (causes for megafaunal extinction Subfossil lemurs Anthropogenic extinction on Madagascar : Loss of habitat due to slash and burn techniques for crops and cattle pastures Current conservation challenges on Madagascar How do we approach difficult topics? Description/Observation • Younger Dryas - a brief period of rapid cold climate, from approximately 12,800 to 11,500 years BP • Sporormiella - a dung fungus that can be found in lake sediments, and is used to investigate past climate Madagascar • Madagascar: Climate and Environments o Mostly tropical, incredibly varied o North and West: dry forests o East and Sambirano: humid forests o South: spiny forest o Central Plateau: cool, mix of grassland and woodland o Long history of climate instability • Madagascar: Geography and Geological History o World’s 4th largest island o About the size of California o Located 400 km east ofAfrica in Indian Ocean o Originally part of Pangaea, later Gondwanaland o Broke off and reached current position relative toAfrica 130 my o India broke off 88 my, Australia andAntarctica probably earlier o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DE-8yO3fnJ4 (important video) o Can someone explain why this video is important? It's an 80's song or !! That Video is funny and very important ;) o Loooool o Oh Goddammit. Lol. o we have been, Rick Roll’dsomething.... o hahaha lmaoo o Respect… o good youtube is slowly going extinct lol Lemurs • Lemurs are related to other strepsirhines fromAfrica,Asia (galagos, pottos, lorises) • Strepsirhine traits: o Large eyes, tapetum lucidum (most are nocturnal) o Moist noses (rhinarium), reliance on scent marking o Dental comb o Grooming claw (2nd digit of foot) • Lemurs split fromAfrican common ancestor ca. 57-75 my • Began to diversify from single common ancestor in Madagascar ca. 50-60 mya • Rafted fromAfrica o Sweepstakes dispersal’ o from genetics, fossil record, palaeogeography (including ancient currents) • Most mammalian orders absent from Madagascar • With less competition, lemurs underwent an adaptive radiation o Activity: diurnal, nocturnal, cathemeral o Diet: frugivory, folivory, insectivory, omnivory, gumnivory, granivory o Vertical space: arboreal, terrestrial o Variable body size Lemur Families (do we have to know this much detail about Lemurs?) ( its on the slides.... :( Lemuridae o Diverse, med. size • Indriidae o Largest body size • Lepilemuridae o Single living genus o 19 species (up from 8 in 2006) • Cheirogaleidae o Smallest body size o Torpor • Daubentoniidae o Monotypic genus o Highly specialized extractive forager Lemur Traits • Small group sizes o Many pair bonded species • Low basal metabolic rates (BMR) • Highly seasonal breeders o 1-2 weeks/year • Female dominance o Sexually monomorphic o Priority of access to food o Lead group movements • Small body size • Adaptations to unpredictable climate o Energy conservation Extinct Lemurs • In the last 1000 yr, 8 genera and ≥ 17 species disappeared • No lemur fossil record older than 20 ky o Subfossils, mostly found in caves • Lemuridae o Pachylemur o 10 kg o Arboreal frugivore o Related to Varecia • Archaeolemuridae o Archaeolemur, Hadropithecus o ‘Monkey lemurs’ o 15-25 kg o Terrestrial, diverse diets • Paleopropithecidae o Paleopropithecus,Archaeoindris, Babakotia, Mesopropithecus o ‘Sloth lemurs’ o 10-200 kg o Mostly arboreal, suspensory • Megaladapidae o Megaladapis o ‘Koala lemurs’ o 20-80 kg o Slow climbers • Extinctions were non-random • All extinct genera were diurnal • All extinct species were larger o Largest living lemur: Indri (6-7 kg) o Largest extinct lemur:Archaeoindris (≤ 200 kg) Anthropogenic Causes of Extinction • Habitat loss o Slash-and-burn agriculture led to clearing of forests o Large areas burned for cattle pasture (‘green bite’) o Large body size = large range requirements • Cattle and other domesticates competed with native fauna • Slowest and largest species may have been preferred prey Ongoing Threats • Hunting o Eroding traditional taboos o Subsistence, little for market o Models from harvest data indicate unsustainable rates (Golden 2009) • Mining o Small scale (gold, gems) o Large scale (nickel, ilmenite) • Politics, poverty o Rosewood crisis • Climate change • Human population growth o 2.9% annual growth rate (0.7% in US) o 43% of population under 15 yrs old (20% in US) • Deforestation o 80-90% original forest cover lost o About half lost since 1950 o Currently 0.45% annual forest loss • Fragmentation, degradation o Isolation of forests limits migration o Edge effects change microclimate, forest composition • Qualitative vs quantitative o Quantitative; how many victims, how many were killed o Qualitative; Ethnography, interviews of people involved, film • Causal explanations o Dehumanizing hate language o Human choice o Bystander indifference Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide • UN GeneralAssembly Resolution 260 ( 9 December, 1948 ) o Article 1: Genocide committed in peacetime or wartime is punishable o Article 2:Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group o Article 3: The following acts shall be punished  Genocide; conspiracy to commit genocide; direct and public incitement to commit genocide; attempt to commit genocide; complicity in genocide o Article 4: Persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article 3 shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals Legal obligations in cases of genocide • Legal definition of genocide o Entire group of people is targeted for elimination Punishable acts associated with genocide/Accountability Language (if there is anything in bold without any writing next to it that means its missing an explanation or definition) • Linguistic anthropology o Phonology is the study of sound in language o Morphology is the study of word structure o Syntax is the study of sentence structure o Semantics is the study of meaning in language o Pragmatics is the study of language use in actual social contexts How is understanding the parts of a language (5 above terms) like understanding a species? Context/Social action • Language ideologies o especially an “ideology of contempt” for the less dominant (socially, politically, economically) language Code-switching: (in multilingual settings) occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation Literacy practices • Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: Relationship between language and thought o Also called linguistic relation key o This principle has two versions to it:  the strong version that language determines thought  the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought Language endangerment: is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language. Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers, and becomes a "dead language". What constitutes a language? (IFANYONE KNOW THIS PLZ FILL) How many languages are alive today = 6,909 Language diversity hotspots • Safe languages: languages that are in no danger of dying out because of official governmental support or large numbers of speakers. o If we choose 100,000 speakers as a “safe” number, there might be 600 “safe” languages out of almost 7,000 total languages in the world (depending on how you count dialects and languages). • Endangered languages: languages that are still being learned by children but that will, if present conditions persist, cease to be learned by children in the coming century • Moribund languages: languages that are no longer being learned by children as their mother tongues and therefore pretty much doomed to extinction • Dead languages: those languages that are no longer spoken by anyone, even if there are written materials or recordings in that language o Language death does not include “dead” languages such as Latin, Sanskrit, or Ancient Greek because what happened to them wasn’t death but normal metamorphosis. They were transformed into their modern descendents (Spanish, French, Modern Greek, Hindi, Nepali, etc.).  Types of Language Death  Sudden death – the loss of a language through the death of all of its speakers;  Radical death – also the rapid loss of a language, typically motivated by political oppression;  Bottom-to-top death – involves the loss of a language from casual contexts first, with the retention in ritual contexts, which is the opposite of what we usually find.  Top-to-bottom gradual death – involves the loss of a language from formal, public, and ritual contexts first, with retention in home and casual contexts; • Causes of gradual death: o Language ideologies – especially an “ideology of contempt” for the less dominant (socially, politically, economically) language; o Official policies – e.g., U.S. Bureau of IndianAffairs schools, “Welsh Not” badge in Wales • What is lost when a language dies? o David Crystal’s 5 reasons we should care if a language dies:  Because we need diversity;  Because language expresses identity;  Because languages are repositories of history;  Because languages contribute to the sum of human knowledge;  Because languages are interesting in themselves. o Harrison  Erosion of human knowledge base;  Loss of cultural heritage; and  Failure to acquire a full understanding of human cognitive capacities. What happens when a language dies? How is it similar to, and different from, biological species extinction? • Language revival: the resurrection of a “dead” language – one that has no remaining native speakers o example: passenger pigeon getting alive again o example: hebrew chosen as the official language by Israel • Language revitalization: the rescue of an “endangered” or “moribund” language. • “Lazarus Taxa” of a language; that is to say, the archival of a language (writing it down) can rescue or resurrect a language should somebody try to learn it. (I wonder how many people speak Klingon or Elvish fluently…) How would you go about reviving or revitalizing a language? Russell-Einstein Manifesto: definition is posted underneath somewhere(search the document) Radioactivity/Bombs/Nuclear Weapons • Risks of the atomic bomb o Devastation of the blast o Harm caused by radiation o Collateral damage Concept of the atom • John Dalton o 1803 Atomic Theory o Law of Multiple Proportions ( "If two elements form more than one compound between them, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small whole numbers” ) • Alchemy: “Achieved in 1919 ” (protons positively charged) • J.J. Thompson: ( 1897 ) Credited with the discovery of the electron • Ernest Rutherford: o New Zealand physicist; Father of nuclear physics o 1903: Hypothesis that radioactivity was caused by the breakdown of atoms o 1908: Identified alpha particles as being the nuclei of atoms of helium o 1911: ( with Hans Geiger ) hypothesis that electrons orbit an atom’s nucleus o 1919: The second fundamental atomic particle, the proton. • Albert Einstein: E=mc^2; equation that created the atomic bomb; • Enrico Fermi: ( 1934 ) first nuclear fission experiments in US, Columbia university; • Frederic Joliot-Curie: Helped out with the letter Einstein wrote to Roosevelt o Einstein’s Letter:. The letter warned of the danger that Germany might develop atomic bombs and suggested that the United States should initiate its own nuclear program; sent to president of the US ( FDR ); Delivered on Oct 11, 1939; • Manhattan Project: o Controlled by: J. Lesile Groves USArmy Corps of Engineers o Science directed by: J. Robert Oppenheirmer, Berkeley physicist o Initially a small research group o Ultimately had 130,000 people o 2 billion dollars ( equal to 22 billion today ) o J. Leslie Groves: Controlled the project • J. Robert Oppenheimer: lead the science department • Gadget: Trinity used an implosion-design plutonium device, informally nicknamed "The Gadget". Using the same conceptual design, the Fat Man device was detonated over Nagasaki o How powerful was Gadget? 21 kilotons of TNT o Hiroshima: (August 6, 1945 ) 15 kilotons TNT; Little boy; 70,000 dead right away; 166,000 within a few months; 200,000 by 1950; o Nagasaki: (August 9, 1945 ) Fat Man; 21 kilotons of TNT; 40,000 dead right away, 60,000 injured; 70,000 dead within a few months; 140,000 dead by 1950; o Little Boy: untested, uranium, explosion o Fat Man: tested, plutonium, implosion o Ivy Mike: ( November 1, 1952 ) 12,000,000 tons TNT o Castle Bravo: ( March 1, 1954 ) 15,000,000 tons TNT ( several thousand times more powerful than Little Boy or Fat man Richard Feynman: • American theoretical physicist • Assisted in the construction of the atomic bomb • Nuclear Tests: US first country to test; between july 1945 - sept 1992 conducted 1054 tests; most tests at Nevada Test site (NTS), but also several in Pacific islands Chernobyl • Radiation types, barriers o Alpha: Relatively harmless; Will be blocked by paper o Gamma: very harmful; will be blocked by concert o Beta: Like alpha, relatively harmless; will be blocked by aluminum foil o X-ray: long term damage? • Sieverts/Equivalent absorbed dose o Symbol for radioactivity - Asymbol that can indicate that danger (radioactivity) is present in the area to future people or “foreign” beings. Linguistic ramifications, e.g. “How do we effectively warn people if our language is irrelevant after 10,000 years” • Malthus strikes back- malthus proposed that population increase will be limited by means of substance. exponentially growing populaton with arithmatically growing food supply will end in “distress” of people in the future. • Malthusian Trap- living standards will be distressed for as long as population is growing. in essence we are “trapped” with this inevitable future for as long as population is growing at the rate it is now. Population growth- forward momentum • At replacement rate, ~2.1 children per female it would still take 2-3 generations for population to stabilize. • Almost 1/3 of world population (more in developing world) is under 15 years old and has not yet reproduced. • Current composite fertility rate for less developed world (except china) ~3.7 child per female. • Population growth powered by continued decline in mortality rate. This phenomenon is global. This issue is now and will challenge those already born. Replacement rate • 2.1 children per female it would still take 2-3 generations for population to stabilize Carrying capacity= technology*resources Cornucopian optimist reference to cornucopia, or the horn of plenty, a symbol of abundance dating from the ancient Greeks. Most adherents to this philosophy have roots in economics, which seems to believe that infinite growth is possible. • Neo-Malthusian pessimist - Eventually our technology will not be enough to maintain the quality of life Club of Rome - pessimistic view about population growth • Influenced one child policy in China • Demographic transition (stages) o Stage 1: expanding- more younger people than older people o Stage 2: expanding- more older people reproducing o Stage 3: stationary:- more age balance o Stage 4: contracting-lower fertility rate, less younger people • “Great Divergence” of income - after 1800, countries that saw the industrial revolution saw average income along with quality of life increase while those countries that were not involved in the revolution fell even more behind and never really caught up to the industrialized nations even to this day. 80% of the world population still lives in “mild deprivation”. • UN Millennium Development Goals - 1. Eliminate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Universal education 3. Promote gender equality and empowered woman. 4. Reduce child mortality rate 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other disease 7. Environmental sustainability 8. Global partnership for development http://www.lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki/article_image.php?id=114 (Picture of the goals) Relationship between people, resources, and carrying capacity K = T x R · Carrying capacity= Technology X Resources How do values play into this? • Relationship between total fertility rate (also know definition-what definition?) and human development index- as the human development index increases (better quality of life, more income, etc…) the total fertility rate decreases. countries like america, where standard of living is high, our birth rate is only 2.1. poorer countries such as india or south american countries have higher fertility rate but are well below the US in the human development index. China’s One Child Policy (causes, results, unintended consequences) • Consequences: too many boys and not enough young to support elderly. What impacts of human population might be considered acceptable? Population density and its impact on species diversity Hans Rosling’s TED talk on religion and population • Relationship between population growth and women with unmet need- ⅓ of births in developing nations are unintended. most do not have contraceptives to have the choice. o women with unmet needs is 1.sexually active. 2. doesnt want a child 3. no contraceptive. 4. able to conceive. How does family planning/access to contraception impact population growth? • What does the term “wedges” mean in relation to carbon emissions? o Apossible method of reducing carbon emissions as represented by a graph. In the graph, carbon goes up. It can be dropped with gradual implementations of laws (looks like wedges in graph) that lowers emission rates to a stabilized point. Glacial ice Precipitation Climate proxies Temperature Curve of Planet Earth • Ratio of O16 to O18 • O16 lighter • O18 heavier • Ice: enriched in O16 • Seawater composition: o Iced times: enriched in O18 o Ice-free: enriched in O16 There is a natural greenhouse effect. It keeps the earth warmer than it would be otherwise. • In terms of Basic Physics o It warms up and it emits infrared • In terms of our Planet Earth Atmosphere Abundance Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 20% Water Vapor* 2% Carbon Dioxide* 0.03% *Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gases are increasing in the atmosphere because of human activities and they are increasingly more than heat • Carbon Dioxide: 31% • Methane (from cows ): 1/3 of the effect of CO2 • Sulfar:Acooling tendancy What do these values tell us about global climate in the past? **Foraminiferans** · Sea water o Foraminiferan – microscopic living being At death they create a geological record on the bottom of the ocean varying between O16 and O18 Deep sea drilling project · Drilling into these layers to get a record of climate in the past · Clear series of processes that we understand to get a record of our ancient planet o Paleocene – Eocene thermal Maximum (PETM) Can also drill into the ice (Vostok Station) Ice cores Timescale and past climate Climatic variation and human evolution Scientific consensus on climate change o “An increasing body of observations gives a collective picture of a warming world and other changes in the climate system… There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributed to human activities § Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change, 2001 · Every paper that has come since has used stronger words and has become increasingly more concerning o 928 papers about 3 quarters fell under the titles: Eval. Of impacts, consensus positions, Mitigating proposals § More citations you have in general you are a scientist that is taken more seriously Greenhouse Effect § The words that are used matter. Greenhouse is actually a pretty benign term to describe something that is extremely serious § You have energy from the sun and it hits the earth. It bounces from earth. Some heat is radiated back into space and some gets trapped by the Ozone layer and reflects the heat back. o Water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane are the primary greenhouse gases. They keep the earth about 33 degrees C warmer than it would normally be § The issue is that the greenhouse gas barrier can be changed by adding more carbon dioxide and methane warming the earth more by radiating more heat back Change in atmospheric CO2 § Observations began in 1957 and 58 in Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Carbon dioxide carries from summer to winter which is very clear and periodic. · Since we have been recording, it has continued to increase very steadily and constantly with very little variation · Greenhouse gases are increasing due to human activity and constantly increasing the heat o We were able to trace back through the ice that we have collected. Methane and sulfur have also increased according to glacial data. o CO2 and Methane are human caused and this is pretty well agreed upon. The majority of methane comes from cow farts, but since humans in a sense “mass produce” cows, methane is technically caused by humans. Contrast between climate scientists and news media on global warming Have human activities contributed to global climate change? How? How do we calculate increases in temperature? o In order to know that temperature has increased a base line must be developed § Mean temperature were taken from all over the world § The baseline is then subtracted from the mean temperatures from future dates · Numbers would be positive if the temperature has risen o Monthly average global temperature § Very noisy § Increasing steadily Where do we start having less confidence in discussions of climate change? Extreme weather events Do we know with certainty how all aspects of global climate work? Ocean current conveyor belt Sea level rise- increasing sea level affects human populations and marine life. caused by melting glaciers and ice sheets. also due to thermal expansion, which is when the ocean is warmer, it expands. Fire regimes • Mountain pine beetles: Parasitic in the sense that it lays eggs in trees which kills trees. Only appears during warm weather. Increase in warm weather (possibly due to Global Warming) means more of these reproducing which means more dead trees. Dead trees means more Carbon in the atmosphere • Ocean acidification - Increase of Carbon leads to more Carbon going into ocean. Carbonic acid is formed making ocean more acidic. →Animals die!! :[ • Pathogen- something that causes disease; an infectious agent o (Ex: germ, virus, bacterium, fungus, etc.) • Parasite- something that grows, feeds and is sheltered on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of its host • Endemic disease- a disease likely to be found in, or restricted to, a particular people or area • Epidemic- widespread occurrence of an infectious disease within a community at a particular time o (Ex: outbreak, plague, etc.) • Pandemic- a large scale endemic that crosses community borders and infects high rates of people; endemic diseases with stable infection rates are not pandemic o (Ex: HIV/AIDS, smallpox, tuberculosis) • Epidemiology- the study of patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations • Virulence- the level of severity and malignancy of a disease; the mortality rate, symptoms, etc. • Ease/mode of transmission- how easily the disease spread Relationship between virulence and transmission: Virulence is the severity of or how much harm a pathogen can do and transmission is how easy a pathogen can be passed. I would assume the relation is that high virulence + high transmission = I don’t wanna’live on this planet. What is disease? (Two points of view) • Symbiosis- Long term and recurring interactions between different species: o Mutualism- Interactions where both species derive a benefit  (Ex: Butterfly and the flower- Butterfly drinks nectar/flower gets pollinated) o Parasitism- Interactions where one species benefits and the other is harmed  (Ex: Bird lays egg in other bird species’nest. Then it hatches and the bird’s like, “Whaaaa-?”--> (It’s the Cuckoo bird) ) o Commensalism- One species benefits and the other is unharmed • Toxoplasmosis gondii- Aparasitic protozoan; transmits via [Cat guts-> Feces-> Rat
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