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01:119:115- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 679 pages long!)


Department
Biological Science
Course Code
01:119:115
Professor
A Keating
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:119:115
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 01 - Exploring Life
Chapter 1 Exploring Life
Lecture Outline
Oerie: Biolog’s Most Eitig Era
Biology is the scientific study of life.
You are starting your study of biology during its most exciting era.
The largest and best-equipped community of scientists in history is beginning to solve problems
that once seemed unsolvable.
o Biology is an ongoing inquiry about the nature of life.
Biologists are moving closer to understanding:
o How a single cell develops into an adult animal or plant.
o How plants convert solar energy into the chemical energy of food.
o How the human mind works.
o How living things interact in biological communities.
o How the diversity of life evolved from the first microbes.
Research breakthroughs in genetics and cell biology are transforming medicine and agriculture.
o Neuroscience and evolutionary biology are reshaping psychology and sociology.
o Molecular biology is providing new tools for anthropology and criminology.
o New models in ecology are helping society to evaluate environmental issues, such as the
causes and biological consequences of global warming.
Unifying themes pervade all of biology.
Concept 1.1 Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale
Life’s asi haateisti is a high degee of ode.
Each level of biological organization has emergent properties.
Biological organization is based on a hierarchy of structural levels, each building on the levels
below.
o At the lowest level are atoms that are ordered into complex biological molecules.
o Biological molecules are organized into structures called organelles, the components of
cells.
o Cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function of living things.
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Some organisms consist of a single cell; others are multicellular aggregates of specialized cells.
Whether multicellular or unicellular, all organisms must accomplish the same functions: uptake
and processing of nutrients, excretion of wastes, response to environmental stimuli, and
reproduction.
o Multicellular organisms exhibit three major structural levels above the cell: similar cells
are grouped into tissues, several tissues coordinate to form organs, and several organs
form an organ system.
For example, to coordinate locomotory movements, sensory information travels from sense
organs to the brain, where nervous tissues composed of billions of interconnected neurons
supported by connective tissuecoordinate signals that travel via other neurons to the
individual muscle cells.
o Organisms belong to populations, localized groups of organisms belonging to the same
species.
o Populations of several species in the same area comprise a biological community.
o Populations interact with their physical environment to form an ecosystem.
o The biosphere consists of all the environments on Earth that are inhabited by life.
Organisms interact continuously with their environment.
Each organism interacts with its environment, which includes other organisms as well as
nonliving factors.
Both organism and environment are affected by the interactions between them.
The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes: the cycling of nutrients and the
flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers.
o In most ecosystems, producers are plants and other photosynthetic organisms that
convert light energy to chemical energy.
o Consumers are organisms that feed on producers and other consumers.
All the activities of life require organisms to perform work, and work requires a source of
energy.
o The exchange of energy between an organism and its environment often involves the
transformation of energy from one form to another.
o In all energy transformations, some energy is lost to the surroundings as heat.
o In contrast to chemical nutrients, which recycle within an ecosystem, energy flows
through an ecosystem, usually entering as light and exiting as heat.
Cells are a orgais’s asi uit of struture ad futio.
The cell is the lowest level of structure that is capable of performing all the activities of life.
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