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Rutgers
01:119:116
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1 - Classification Review & Virology
I. Classification and Evolution
A. Classification
Fig 26.2
1. Taxonomy
Science of describing, naming, & classifying organisms - binomial nomenclature
2. Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
Taxonomy
Species is basic level of classification
Levels of classification are a hierarchy
Groups from broad to narrow are Domain to Species
Taxon (taxa pl.) = grouping of organisms at any one of these levels
B. Evolution
Quick review: What is the definition of evolution?
Changes in ALLELES over time (review Hardy-Weinberg rules)
How about natural selection?
Differential survival and adaption (review Darwin and Natural Selection)
Natural selection requires diversity
What are these types of diversity?
Genetic
Species
Community & Ecosystem
C. Basics of Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Represents an evolutionary hypothesis
Clades
Monophyletic
Paraphyletic
Polyphyletic
Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of a group
Identify the components of a phylogenetic
Fig 26.5
Branch point (nodes) - where lineages diverge 2, 3 , 4, 5
Sister taxa - Taxon B & Taxon C
Basal taxon - least related to everyone in the tree Taxon G
Polytomy - Taxon D, E, & F
Extant Species - all species that are alive
What does this tree say?
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Fig 26.21 (Tree of life with 3 domains)
Viruses?
II. Virology
A. General Characteristics
1. Non-living
2. No cells - only genetic material & protein
3. Metabolism - requires a cell
4. Reproduction requires a cell
Obligate intercellular parasites (have to use a cell’s mechanisms)
Very small - 20 to 300 nm
Genetic material - varies by : type, size, shape
DNA or RNA
Protein body
B. Structure of Viruses
Fig 19.3
Viruses - genetic material surrounded by proteins
Capsid - protein coat surrounds DNA/RNA - made of capsomeres
Some viruses have envelopes on top of capsid - comes from host - HIDES VIRUS!
C. Viral Reproduction
Host range is narrow
Why are viruses so specific?
Think about proteins
Table 19.1
Basic general features of viral reproduction
Fig 19.4
1. Virus binds to host
2. Genome enters cells
3. Host copies viral genome & produces proteins
4. New virus assembles
5. Exit host
Phage reproduction
Two types of viral reproduction cycles:
Lytic: kills host at end of cycle
Lysogenic: hides in host for many cycles using a prophage
Two types of phage viruses (infect bacteria)
Virulent phage: kills host at end of cycle - only uses the lytic cycle
Temperate phage: can use either the lytic or lysogenic cycle
Eventually a TEMPERATE virus hiding using lysogenic cycle MAY activate. Then it will
start the lytic cycle
Lytic Cycle with a virulent page
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