[01:119:116] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (14 pages long!)

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Rutgers
01:119:116
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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SEQ natural selection
a.
Interpret phylogeny
b.
Classification and Evolution
I.
SEQ viral replication cycle
a.
b.
CC viral origin hypothesis
c.
Virology
II.
Binomial nomenclature: Genus + specific epithet (ex: Homo sapiens)
a)
Taxonomy: naming, describing, classifying
1)
Phylogeny: evolutionary history of species / group
2)
2 parts:
i.
Hierarchial - each level more inclusive than the one below
1)
All species at a level share characteristics of that group
2)
Taxon: grouping at any level
3)
Linnaean classification
ii.
Classification (+ systematics): study of diversity of organisms and evolutionary
relationships
a.
Changes in allele frequency from generation to generation
1)
NOT changes to an individual during their lifetime
2)
Accumulation of genetic changes within a population over time
i.
Acts on variation
1)
Natural selection: one of many mechanisms of evolution -- beneficial traits
increase in frequency over generations
ii.
Biological diversity is a consequence of evolution
iii.
Evolution
b.
Phylogeny: evolutionary history of a species or group of species
i.
Use dichotomies: 2-way branches
1)
Trees are hypotheses
2)
Phylogenetic tree: representation of evolutionary relationships -- not
phenotypic similarity
ii.
Basics of Phylogeny
c.
Classification and Evolution
I.
Lecture 1: Classification + Virology
Thursday, January 19, 2017
10:12 PM
Biology 2 Page 1
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Big idea: taxonomy should reflect phylogeny
1)
3-domain system
Connecting classification and phylogeny
iii.
Virology
II.
Q: Where are viruses on the tree of life?
"Nonliving" particles
i.
Composed of capsid + genome
ii.
Subcellular (usually smaller than cells), intracellular (replicate within cells),
parasite (use host cell's resources for own life cycle)
iii.
Note: there are always exceptions because viruses break all the rules
iv.
General characteristics
a.
Carry out metabolic processes
i.
Viruses do not/cannot:
b.
A: they're not; usually not considered living
Biology 2 Page 2
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