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01:119:131- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 74 pages long!)


Department
Biological Science
Course Code
01:119:131
Professor
Skelly
Study Guide
Midterm

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Rutgers
01:119:131
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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I. Summary
A. C6H12O6+6O2 → 6CO2+38 ATP
B. Glycolysis 2(NADH) * 3 = 6 ATP
B.1. Net ATP of 2
C. Krebs Cycle 8(NADH)*3=24 ATP
C.1. 2(FADH2)*2=4 ATP
D. Net ATP GTP → 2 ATP
E. Total: 38 ATP!
II. Aerobic metabolism: respiration
A. Krebs cycle: metabolizes two-carbon units called acetyl groups to CO2 and H2O
B. Doorways into krebs cycle: pyruvate loses a molecule of CO2 and oxidized by
NAD, resulting two carbon acetyl group is attached to coenzyme A, forming
Acetyl CoA
B.1.
C. Biology
C.1. Acetyl CoA(2C) + Oxaloacetate (4C)
C.2. Citrate (6C)
C.2.a) Release Acetyl CoA
C.2.b) Isocitrate (6C)
C.3. Alpha-ketoglutarate (5C)
C.3.a) NAD+ → NADH
C.3.b) Release CO2
C.4. Succinyl CoA (4C)
C.4.a) NAD+ → NADH
C.4.b) Release CO2
C.5. Succinic acid (4C)
C.5.a) ADP→ ATP(GTP)
C.5.b) From H2O coenzyme A
C.6. Fumarate (4C)
C.6.a) FAD+ → FADH2
C.7. Malate → goes back to 1st step
C.7.a) H2O in
C.7.b) NAD+ → NADH
C.8. Step 1
C.9. 1 glucose= 2 cycles
C.9.a) No ATP usage
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C.9.b) Produces 4 CO2, 6NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP
C.9.c) Glucose is completely oxidized!
C.10. Overall: 4 ATP, all glucose E is stored in NADH and FADH2 to be
used in ETC
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