Bio EXAM REVIEW 1.docx

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Biological Sciences
Jose Rodriguez

Bio EXAM 1 Chapter 1 Cell- Organisms basic unit of structure/function -lowest level of organization that can perform activities required for life Prokaryotic- lack membrane-enclosed organelle -bacteria & archea Eukaryotic- contain membrane-enclosed organelles, including DNA in nucleus -protozoa, fungi, plants, animals Three Domains of life -1) Bacteria + 2)Archea, prokaryotes -3)Eukarya, eukaryotes -protists, plantae, fungi, animalia Darwin- 1895, ‘Origin of Species- Natural Selection -2 main points, 1) Decent with modification =new species arose from a succession of ancestors that differed from them 2)Natural Selection = environment ‘selects’ for the preproduction of certain traits among naturally occurring traits in population Based on 3 observations 1) heritable traits 2) competition 3)adaptation Inductive Reasoning - reasoning from experience, sense perceptions, and observations to form a conclusion. -Very specific -> specific -Observation-> form theory Examples: ~“Jill and Bob are friends. Jill likes to dance, cook and write. Bob likes to dance and cook. Therefore it can be assumed he also likes to write.” ~“Bob is a sumo wrestler. Sumo wrestlers weigh a lot. Bob weighs a lot.“ Deductive Reasoing- Broad-> specific -Theory -> confirmation -includes IF, AND, THEN Examples: All fruits grow on trees.' 'Some fruits are orange.' 'Therefore, some fruits that are orange grow on trees.' Themes -examples Organization: Structure/Function - sharp quills porcupine - Strong, sharp wolf teeth for prey Organization: Emergent properties - ability of human heart to pump blood requires an intact heart Information -Human eye color determined by genes inherited from two parents -development multicellular organism from single fertilized egg Energy and Matter - hummingbird using sugar to power its flight -Plant absorbs energy from sun transforms it into molecules act as fuel..animals eat parts of plant use food for energy Interactions: Ecosystems -Mouse eats food (nuts/grass) deposits some food material as waste. Construction of a nest rearranges the physical environment and may speed degradation of some of its components. Mouse may also act as food for predator. Interactions: Molecules -Stomach is full, signals brain to decrease appetite Evolution - All plants have chloroplasts, showing decent from common ancestor QUESTIONS 1) All organisms on your campus make up -Community 2) Hierarchy, downward from an individual animal -Nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell 3) Observations on which Darwin’s nat selection was based on -Heritable variation among individuals -Competition for limited resources bc of over production of offspring -Population can become adapted to an environment over time 4) Systems biology -understand behavior of entire biological systems by studying interactions among its component parts 5) Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains bc -protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus 6) Unity among all organisms -structure and function of DNA 7) Controlled Experiment -tests experimental and control groups in parallel (similarity, correspondence) 8) Example of Qualitative data - fish swam in zigzag motion (doesn’t involve #’s) Chapter 2 chemistry Elements- periodic table, cant be broken down Essential elements- 20-25% out of 92 elements are essential. -organism needs to live healthy life & reproduce -humans need 25, plants only need 17 Trace element- Essential bc an organism requires trace elements even though in small amounts -Iron= trace element in humans required for proper function of hemoglobin (carries oxygen to red blood cells). Iron deficiency- anemia Compound- two or more diff elements.. -oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen make up 96% living things Atomic # - number of protons Mass # - sum of protons and neutrons in nucleus of an atom - 23 N …. Protons = 11 + neutrons = 23 mass # 1 1 Isotope- different atomic forms of the same element - same # of proton Radioactive isotope - nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy. Unstable Covalent bond -strong bond -sharing of electrons -can be single/double bond -can be polar/non polar Ionic bond -strong bond (weak in water) -stripping of an electron -can be between cation/anion -2 opposite charges -environment effects strength Hydrogen bond -weak bond -partial positive charge -between hydrogen + electronegative atom Van der waals interaction -Weak (can be strong when occurred simultaneously) -constantly changing between negative, positive charges -only occur when atoms and molecules are very close 2gether -allows gecko lizard to walk straight up a wall -can also form between parts of large molecule QUESTIONS 1) How does table salt have emergent properties? -Sodium chloride..we can eat the compound and prove that it has different properties from those of a metal(sodium) and poisonous gas (chlorine). 2) Compared with 31P, the radioactive isotope 32P has -one more neutron 3) Reactivity from atom arises from -the exsistence of unpaired electrons in valence shell 4) Anion atoms -atom has more electrons than protons 5) Chemical reaction @ equilibrium -Rates of forward and reverse reactions are = 6) Atominc # of Sulfur is 16. Combinded with H, molecular formula -H2S 7) Whether an atom will more form ionic or covalent bond is determined by -relative electronegativity 8) Least number of species -population 9) Divisible levels in hierarchy - molecules, atoms, biosphere, population, tissues 10)Chemical behavior at atom determined by -# valence electrons 11)Water molecule formed by polar bond because: -shared electrons are more commonly found around nucleuous of oxygen rather than the nuclie of hydrogen 12)Ordinary carbon has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 12 amu. Which of the following describes an atom which is a carbon isotope? - 6 protons, neutrons, and electrons CH 3 water Properties of water 1)Cohesive behavior -water molecules hold on together through Hbonds adhesive – water attaching to something other than water - helps resist the downward pull of gravity 2)Temperature Moderation -Water moderates air temp by absorbing heat from warmer air and/or releasing stored heat to cooler air -specific heat of water- due by H bonds -heat absorbed = break bond -heat released = form bond -high specific heat of water= stabilize ocean temps 3) Expansion upon freezing -makes water less dense as solid 4) Versatility as Solvent -traces back to polarity of H20 molecules -can easily bind to polar molecules ex: water(solvent) + salt(solute) Hydrophilic- likes water Hydrophobic – nonionic and nonpolar substances that cannot form hydrogen bonds = repel water -oils,lipids QUESTIONS 1) Hydrophobic material -wax 2) Mole of sugar and mole of vitamin C are = - in number of molecules 3) pH of lake is 4.0, what is H concentration -10 ^-4 M 4) Hydroxide concentration of lake ^^ -10 ^-10 M 5) Test to isolate lipid used which technique -Test for the dissolvability in non-polar environment 6) When energy from the sun enters our system it is -converted to usable chemical energy and always partially lost as heat 7) After washing and waxing car, round water beads form on surface.. 8) A stalk of celery is placed in a solution of blue colored dye. After one hour, the fluid has moved up the stalk and the leaves now have blue fluid in their veins. Which property(ies) of water is/are being demonstrated? -adhesion and cohesion CH 5 structure/function of large biological molecules Macromolecules- polymers built from monomers -carbs, proteins, and nucleic acids polymer- long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds -train consists of cars monomer- smaller repeating units that serve as building blocks to polymer enzymes- build/breakdown of polymers Monomers brought together by: 1) Hydrolisis – breaks down polymers by adding water molecule -opposite of dehydration -ex: digestion 2)Dehydration- building polymers by removing water to form bond 4 main polymers 1) Carbohydrates -monosaccharide’s (simple sugars) -CH20 = formula -1 carboxyl group, multiple hydroxyl categorized on: -location of carboxyl group -size of c skeleton - more accurate as ring shape Disaccharide- consist of two monosac joined by a glycosidic linakge Glycosidic linkage- covalent bond produced by dehydration reaction Storage Polysaccharides -provides sugars for cells after hydrolysis -in plants= starch (inside chloroplast) -in animals= glycogen Structural Poly -strong building materials for organisms -in plants= cellulose -in animals= chitin (exoskeleton) 2)Lipids -hydrophobic molecules (not true polymers) -don’t mix w/ water bc of molecular structer -not big enough to be macromolecule Linkage = ester linkages -structure varies a)fats b)phospholipids c)steroids Fats -made from glycerol and fatty acids through dehyradtion Phospholipids -essential for cell membranes -form a boundary between cell and its external environment -polar head(hydrophilic) +nonpolar tail(hydrophobic) -tends to be electronegative Steroids -lipids characterized by C skeleton of 4 fused rings -different steroids, different chemical groups attached ex: cholesterol 3)Proteins -account for more> 50% dry mass of most cells -constructed from same set of 20 monomers (amino acids) -varies and changes the types of protein depend on R Group (side chain) -always attached to alpha C and something other than H -Linkage = amino acids are bonded by dehydration by peptide bonds, form polymers (polypeptides) Protein structure 1)primary structure -sequence of amino acids 2)secondary structure -alpha helix coil = hair -beta pleated sheets = spider web 3)tertiary structure -shape depends on R group 4)quaternary structure -association between 2 or more polypeptides collagen= 3 polypeptide chains twist hemoglobin Other things determine protein structure -pH -Temperature -Salinity QUESTIONS 1) Which of the following categories includes monosacc, polysacc, and starch? -carbohydrates 2) The enzyme amylase can break glycodisic linkages between glucose monomers only if the monomers are in the alpha for. Example: -glycogen, starch, and amylopectin 3) Unsaturated fats -They have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids 4) The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is -primary level 5)Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes? -the phsophodi ester linkages of the polynucleotide back bone would be broken 6) The hydrolysis of triacylglycerol will yield: -three fatty acids and one glycerol 7)Monosacc will dissolve in water bc -they have a large number of polar hydroxyl groups 8) Dr. Reed is studying the cell membrane of a unicellular organism. He isolates an unknown compound that is made up of a three-carbon alcohol which is ester-linked to three long unbranched hydrocarbon chains. From this Dr. Reed could conclude that this unknown molecule is a -lipid 9) Membranes of organisms are made up of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. In cold temperatures, organisms have an increased number of unsaturated fatty acids in the membranes. Why this is advantageous? - Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds. This creates space between lipids and prevents freezing 10) sequence of events in the origin of life? Synthesis of organic monomers, synthesis of organic polymers, formation of protobionts, formation of DNA-based genetic systems CH 6 inside the cell Light microscope – visible light passed through specimen and then through glass lens -magnification, resolution, contrast electron microscope- beam of electrons through specimen or onto its surface. Electrobeams have much shorter wavelength than visible light Scanning electron microscope- SEM, detailed study of topography, 3d, electron beans scan surface excited electrons.. transmission electron microscope- TEM, internal structure of cells, aims an electron beam though very thin section of specimen Conditions on earth made possible by -early atmosphere via organic molecules -organic compounds spontaneous assemble into protocells..(properties of cells) -RNA first genetic material Key Events in Life’s Origin Similarities Pro and Eukaryotic cells -bounded by selective barrier, plasma membrane -semifluid, cytosol -contain chromosomes, carry genes in form of DNA -ribosomes Differences Pro and Eukaryotic cells - location of DNA, pro(nucleoid) eur(nucleus) -Euk are larger -Pro lack nuclei and other membrane-enclosed organelles EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL Endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell -does NOT include mitochondria + chloroplast Nucleus- contains most of genes in cell 1) Nuclear envelope =double membrane (inner/outer) enclosing nucleolus, punctured by pores, continuous with ER 2) Nucleolus= nucleus has one or more nucleoli, non-membrane structure, production of ribosomes, (rRNA)- ribosome subunit synthesis 3) Chromatin= material consisting of DNA and proteins, visible in a dividing cell = individuals= chromosomes Ribosomes – complexes that make protein and rRNA -2 subunits, 1 large and 1 small -carry out protein synthesis to the cell free ribosomes- floating in cytoplasm, make proteins that function in cytoplasm/cytosol bound ribosomes- attached to ER or nuclear envelope, make proteins for membrane, packed into organelles/ excreted from cell *Nucleus + Ribosome= important to gene expression * DNA is transcribed to RNA = protein Plasma Membrane - phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell - selectively permeable -site of cell-to-cell interaction/recognition -encloses cell contents plasma membrane proteins – molecular transport through membrane The Cytoplasm Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – network of membranous sacs/tubes =cisteria -smooth ER= lipids synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, detoxifies drugs/poisons, stores calcium ions -rough ER= bound ribosomes secrete glycoproteins, membrane factory for cells, distributes transport vesicles to golgi apparatus Golgi Apparatus- organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting/secreting of cell products cis phase – receiving trans phase- shippings -modifies products of ER -manufactures certain macromolecules -sort/packages other materials into transport vesicles Lysosomes- digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed a) pr
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