Biology Lab Practical Study Guide

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Rutgers University
Biological Sciences
Sara Campbell

1 Lab 1: UNICELLULAR EUKARYOTES evolution by natural selection: ● theory developed by charles darwin and Alfred Wallace to explain the process by which a species changes over time ● Individuals best suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less suited individuals ● favorable traits become more common in subsequent generations while unfavorable traits are eliminated ● acts on EXISTING variation and is responsible for increased variation/biological diversity evolutionary fitness: quantification of evolutionary success measured by number of offspring adaptations: characteristics that confer better fitness Sexual versus Asexual reproduction: SEXUAL ASEXUAL genetic variation- dec chance of passing mutated or lack genetic variation- negatively mutated or deleterious deleterious traits to offspring, inc chance of passing adapgenes will be passed to offspring and cannot leave the lineage traits (this can also be an advantage but only if genes or mutations *high chance for evolution of genes in offspring are beneficial- beneficial genes will not be lost) takes a lot of time and energy numerous offspring can be produced without “costing” much time or energy form parent requires organism to find a mate with can delay reproductiodoes not require an organism to find a mate less “reliable”- requires production of gametes, fertilizatmore “reliable”- less stages and processes involved means and proper development, more processes involved means less room for error more room for error Taxonomy: classification and naming of organisms based on similar characteristics. (D, K, P, C, O, F, G, S) *note this is a “human construct”- there is nothing that changes biologically about the organism because of the group is it classified in, constructs are constantly changing Phylogeny: classifying organisms based on evolutionary history. 1. monophyletic groups: contain a most recent common ancestor and all descendants (example: mammalia) 2. polyphyletic groups: contains all extant (living) species but no common ancestor (example: “fish”-not all extant fish descend from an organism we consider to be a fish) 3. paraphyletic group: contains common ancestor and some, but not all, descendant (example: “reptiles”- birds and reptiles have a common ancestor but birds are excluded) 2 DOMAIN EUKARYA: ● originally organized into four kingdoms:Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista ● Protista was non monophyletic has been eliminated * broken down into five monophyletic SUPERGROUPS based on motility: 1. Archeaplastids: red algae, green algae, and land plants. examples are chlamydomonas, oedogonium, spyrogyra, and other land plants looked at last semester. 2. Excavates: presence of a deep oral groove, two or more flagella some with a crystalline rod. a. Includes two major groups: i. Euglenoids: euglena ii. Diplomonads: parisitic group includes trypanosomes and trichonymphs 3. Chromalveolates: diverse group formed from the endosymbiosis of a red algae. a. Includes many groups: i. ciliates* (brown algae/ fucus) ii. others are gold algae, diatoms, water molds, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates. 4. Rhizarians: the unicellular “shelled” amoebas with a protective test/shell or “naked” amoebas (later in lab). a. “shelled” amoebas include: i. foraminiferans ii. actinopods 5. Unikonts: has a triple gene fusion absent in other supergroups, single or no flagellum a. includes: i. unicellular amoebas, cellular or plasmodial slime molds, fungi*, choanoflagellates, and animals*. LAB EXERCISES: I. Supergroup EXCAVATES Euglena ● “plant like” because they contain chloroplast (green) ● mixotrophic: autotrophic and heterotrophic (photosynthetic) ● one flagellum ● eyespot: used to sense light and dark in their environment *stained red ● one nucleus Trypanosomes: ● most are harmless to their hosts (typically arthropods or vertebrates) ● many have a complex life cycle involving a vertebrate and invertebrate host ● one flagellum ● free living, symbiotic, or parasitic ● can cause african sleeping sickness and other diseases in humans ● undulating membrane ● one nucleus note: pink stain and RBC’s Trychonymphs: (termite flagellates) ● symbiotic relationship in gut of termites- digest cellulose in cell wall of wood via bacterial enzymes which produces simple sugars absorbed by termites for nutrients ● many flagella 3 ● one nucleus ● endoplasm and ectoplasm note: pieces of digested wood and nucleus II. Supergroup CHROMALVEOLATES: Ciliates-- ● cilia used for locomotion and acquiring food ● oral groove: formation of food vacuole ● two nuclei: macro and micronucleus ● most are free swimming (paramecium) but can be attached (stentor and vorticella) Paramecium: ● “slipper shape” ● cillia embedded in a pellicle (outer covering) and in oral groove to pass food ● trichocysts: toxic threadlike stinging structures also embedded in pellicle, fx in defense and food capture (in lab experiment with vinegar/ acetic acid made paramecium discharge trichocysts) ● oral groove obtains food and passes food into formed food vacuoles for digestion ● contractile vacuole with radiating canals: get rid of excess water ● Reproduce sexually and asexually ○ binary fission: organism replicated DNAand divides into two identical daughter cells (asex) ■ micronucleus: controls repro and divides first by mitosis ■ micronucleus: divides second by constriction ○ conjugation: two organisms contact at oral groove and exchange genetic material (sex) note: observed live paramecium (fast swimmers) and a stained slide Binary fission Stentor: ● trumpet shape when attached to substrate by stalk ● ovoid shape when detached and free swimming ● one macronucleus several micronuclei Vorticella: ● attached to substrate or free swimming ● stalk can be coiled to bring body of the organism closer to substrate ● ciliated mouth membrane for food capture III. supergroup RHIZARIA: the shelled amoebas Functions of test: protection, support for body and pseudopodia, shape change for buoyancy Foraminiferans: ● calcareous test that is multi chambered ● pseudopodia stream through tiny pores fx in food capture ● also obtain food from photosynthetic algal endosymbionts ● live on/near ocean floor and when die accumulate to form an ozone of sedimentary rock Actinopods: the radiolarians ● radial symmetrical/spherical single chambered test made of silica ● axopods (thin pseudopodia) project from openings in shell fx in food capture ● also obtain nutrients from photosynthetic algal endosymbionts 4 IV. Supergroup UNIKONTS Amoebas ● pseudopodia* used for feeding and locomotion (in some types) ● asymmetrical or spherical symmetry ● reproduce sexually and asexually (no meiosis or mitosis?) ● identify: ectoplasm, endoplasm, food vacuoles, nucleus, pseudopodium, and contractile vacuoles Lab 2:ANIMAL DIVERSITY 1 Evolution of Multicellularity: 1. unicellularity: single complex cell is responsible for all biological functions 2. colonialism: cells grow together in a colony (groups of identical cells of the same species), cells can live independently, each cell is responsible for all biological functioning 3. cell specialization: within colony cells specialize to perform specific tasks, calls can still fx independently and perform all biological fx, division of labor allows cells to fx more efficiently 4. interdependence: cells are fully specialized to perform only one fx, advantageous to colony as a whole (more efficient) but prevents any cell from surviving independently (not considered multicellular!) 5. multicellularity: cells are so specialized that they depend on one another, cells begin to form tissues and tissue systems as well as organs and organ systems in more complex organisms Fucus (brown algae): a multicellular chromalveolate ● “plant-like” ● lives in an intertidal region: submerged or in air throughout day ● structures of preserved specimen: ○ holdfast: anchors in place ○ air bladder: buoyancy ○ on blade: ■ receptacles: swollen ends contain conceptacles ■ conceptacles: produce gametes (motile sperm and sessile egg) ○ male receptacle c.s. slide: (blue stain) ■ contains numerous conceptacles around edges ■ HP of conceptacle shows numerous antheridia and sessile hairs ■ HP of single antheridium shows numerous sperm ○ female receptacle c.s. slide: (brown stain) ■ contains numerous conceptacles around edges ■ HP of conceptacle shows several oogonia ■ HP of oogonium with eggs (4-8) Fucus life cycle: Kingdom Fungi: Rhizopus Black bread mold: a filamentous fungi (observed prepared petri dishes) ● mycelium: white body mass visible to naked eye ● hyphae: strands ● sporangia: balls at end of hyphae containing spores (asexual reproductive cells) ● zygosporangium: formed when a + and - hyphae fuse, contains zygospores (sexual cells with numerous 5 nuclei) Rhizopus life cycle Coprinus Mushroom Basidiomycete: ● toadstool shape ● on life mushroom identify: stalk cap and gills ● structures of basidiocarp c.s of: ○ HP on gills ID basidium: gives rise to four basidiospores by meiosis ○ basidium: blue bump on gills ○ basidiospore: red dots on basidium Pezzia: an ascomycete cup fungi ● ascus: sac like structure containing eight ascospores formed by meiosis KINGDOM ANIMALIA ● multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs ● most reproduce sexualy by fusion of gametes I. PARAZOANS ● asymmetrical ● no true tissues or germ layers ● no high level organization of organs or organ systems phylum placozoa: ■ marine warm waters ■ transparent flat amoeboid organisms Trichoplax ■ two cell layers and cavity between (simple body plan) ■ smallest amount of DNAof all animals ■ move by gliding on cilia or shape change phylum porifera ■ sessile filter feeders found in the ocean ■ porous body supported by endoskeleton containing spicules ■ spicules: made of calcium carbonate, silica, or spongin protein for support Grantia ■ specialized base to attach to substrate ■ osculum: large single opening where water exits ■ ostia: pores pass water into central canal (spongocoel) ■ choanocytes: flagellated collar cells that filter food as water passes through canals, digest food intracellularly (within cell) ■ slides: transverse section of sponge, spicules (3 branches), excurrent canal with collar cells (choanocytes) II. EUMETAZOANS ● exhibit radial or bilateral symmetry ● have true tissues with two to three germ layers phylum cnidaria: 6 ● radial symmetry ● presence of gastrovascular cavity (*digestion) ● cnidocytes: specialized stinging cells for defense ● two body forms: ● polyp: tubular shape, single mouth opening surrounded by tentacles ● medusa: umbrella shape, free swimming organism Class hydrozoa: polyp stage is dominant but may give rise to free swimming medusa in some species 1. hydra ■ dominant polyp form with tentacles for food capture ■ observed live hydra: small and clear, contracts body in defense ■ hydra cs: ● two germ layers: outer epidermis and inner gastrodermis ● mesoglea: noncellular layer holds two germ layers together ● *intracellular digestion: food vacuoles form when gastrodermal cells engulf food particles by extending pseudopodia in gastrovascular cavity ● *extracellular digestion: enzymes are released into cavity and digested food material is absorbed by gastrodermal cells. ■ hydra tentacle cs: ● cnidocytes: cell contains specialized stinging structure (nematocyst) and trigger (cnidocil) ■ reproduction: sexual or asexual (*budding slide) 2. obelia (class hydrozoa) ■ colonial (unlike hydra) ■ polyp stage is dominant but may give rise to some free swimming medusa ● feeding/nutritive polyp: tentacles, provide food to colony ● reproductive polyp: club shaped, no tentacles, produce medusa buds ● medusa: small body (bell) with tentacles, manubrium (dark center bears mouth), involved in sexual reproduction with separate sexes ● planula: free living larval form that develops from the zygote 3. portuguese man of war ■ feeding (tentacles) , reproductive, and defense polyps (contain stinging cells) ■ large gas filled sac: buoyancy class scyphozoa: dominant medusa stage, polyp stage is greatly reduced or lacking 1. Aurelia (common jellyfish) ■ preserved aurelia: body with tentacles: manubrium, mouth ■ strobila stage: polyp develops many horizontal “saucers” by constriction ● each saucer is a medusa that will pinch off and separate class anthozoa: only a polyp stage 1. sea anemone ■ pedal disc: anchors animals onto a surface (rocks, shelled animals), can also function in sliding slowly ■ oral disc: slit like mouth with rows of ciliated tentacles to prevent debris from entering ■ muscular gullet contains cilia that beat in opposite directions to draw in food or rid of waste from gastrovascular cavity ■ contracted versus expanded forms 2. corals ■ each polyp secretes a protective layer of limestone around itself forming a colony 7 ■ coral reef: new colony built on old colonies ■ observed Astrangia: coral skeleton (pockets where polyps were removed) Phylum Ctenophora: comb jellies ● **biradial symmetry ● eight rows of fused cilia (comb rows): beat to move animal in water ● tentacles with adhesive cells for food capture (carnivorous) ● one way digestion: mouth and anus SYMMETRY: radial: any plan produces two identical halves biradial: two planes produce identical halves bilateral: one plane produces identical halves Lab 3:ANIMAL DIVERSITY II Eumetazoans: radial and diploblastic: cnidarians and ctenophores OR bilateral and triploblastic: have three germ layers ○ ectoderm: gives rise to skin and NS ○ mesoderm: gives rise to CT coverings, muscle, bone, and blood vessels ○ endoderm: gives rise to linings of respiratory and digestive tracts Evolutionary trends: tissues, body cavity, digestive tract, circulatory system, cephalization ○ cephalization: concentration of sensory structures and neural tissues that integrate sensory info in the head ○ body cavities: space btwn the gut tube (lined with endoderm) and body wall (outer ectoderm) ■ true coelom: has body cavity that is fully lined with mesoderm ■ pseudocoelom: has body cavity is not fully lined with mesoderm, only associated with body wall not the gut ■ acoelom: no body cavity ○ digestive tract: complete one way tract distinguished by how gut openings are formed ■ blastopore: single opening into digestive tract formed in early development as the gut forms ■ protostomes: blastopore develops into mouth and then a second opening develops into anus ■ deuterostomes: blastopore develops into anus and then a second opening forms the mouth adaptations for parasitism: ● developed adhesive structures (hooks, and sucksers) ● sense organ loss ● modifications for feeding ● increased reproductive capability (ex hermaphroditism) PROTOSTOMES *divided into two monophyletic groups based on DNA I. the LOPHOTROCHOZOA ● locotrphore: cilliated ring of tentacles surrounding mouth for feeding ● trochophore larva phylum platyhelminthes: 8 ○ dorsoventrally (top to bottom) flattened ○ acoelomate (derived/ simplified) ○ lack organs for gas exchange and circulation 1. planarian (class turbellaria): wm and cs ■ free living flatworm ■ eyespot for sensing light ■ oracle for balance ■ gastrovascular cavity 2. tapeworm (class cestoda): wm ■ highly adapted for parasitism (all organs become degenerative except reproductive) ■ proglottids: segments containing male and female reproductive organs and where fertilization occurs (in proglottids close to scolex) ■ scolex: hooks and suckers 3. parasitic flukes (class trematoda): wm and cs ■ two suckers: one anterior/oral and ventral sucker (1/3 way down body) phylum mollusca: ○ true coelomates ○ calcareous shell ○ three body regions: ■ head-foot: sensory and locomotor region ■ visceral mass: contains most of organ systems ■ mantle: covers visceral mass, secretes shell ○ radula: rasping structure covered with chitinous teeth for feeding 1. class bivalvia ■ hinged shell with right and left halves covering visceral mass ■ no radula (obtain food by siphoning and filter feeding) ■ clams mussels and oysters the clam ■ outside: concentric growth lines and adductor muscles hold shell together ■ inside: ● mantle: outer tissue layer secretes shell ● siphons: thickened parts of the mantle, fx to move water, incurrent (inside) excurrent (outside) ● muscular foot: extends for feeding, controlled my retractor muscles ● gills 2. class polyplacophora (the chitons) ■ elliptical body with shell composed of eight plates ■ muscular foot for attachment ■ girdle 3. class gastropoda ■ spirally coiled shell containing visceral mass (some adults lose shell ex slug) ■ head with one or two pairs of tentacles ■ large flat muscular foot ■ siphons ■ snail: ● coiled shell ● muscular foot that moves with wavelike contractions 9 ● slime gland secretes mucus for gliding ■ slug: ● shell is reduced to a small flattened plate restricts to moist environment) ● feed on vegetation ■ nudibranch ● lack shell ● marine (live among seaweed) ● cerata: projections on backside where nematocysts from cnidarian prey are displayed ● many resemble seaweed and depend on crypsis (hiding) for defense 4. class cephalopoda ■ prominent head with complex eyes and 8-10 tentacles surrounding mouth ■ cephalization ■ shell is internal , external, or absent ■ eye: ex of convergent evolution, analogous to human eye ■ squid: ● ID: head foot, visceral mass, mantle, siphon, pen (thin internal shell), and ink sac ■ octopus: no sell so less active ■ shelled cephalopods: chambered nautilus ● coiled external shell divided into chambers (only cephalopod with external shell) ● siphule: organ that extends into all chambers, secretes and absorbs gases for buoyancy phylum annelida ● true coelom ● well developed closed circulatory system ● some cephalization ● segmentation ○ class polychaeta ■ segments with projections called parapodia ■ marine ■ tentacles on head neris: ■ parapodia with bristle like setae: fx to inc surface area for respiration, locomotion, or anchoring on place ■ head with specialized segments: ● first: jaws, a pairs simple eyes, pair of tentacles and pair of conical palps (sense organs) ● second: four pairs of tentacles sabella: fanworm ■ radioles: feathery structures on head sweep food particles out of water ■ construct a tube of sand and mucus to live in (parapodia are reduced to move in and out of tube easily) ○ class oligochaeta (earthworms) ■ mouth on first segment surrounded by ring like structure ■ clitellium: swollen gurdle secretes protective cocoon around eggs when laid ■ two ventral lines of setae ■ dissected earthworm digestion: ● coelom is separated by thin membranes called septa ● pharynx: near mouth sucks in food ● esophagus: extends from pharynx to crop ● crop: stores food ● gizzard: where food is ground 10 ● intestines: extend from gizzard to anus ■ dissected earthworm circulation: ● dorsal vessel ● ventral vessel ● hearts: contractile tubes that connect dorsal and ventral vessels ■ dissected earthworm reproduction ● seminal vesicles: store sperm produced by testes until copulation (transferred to another worm) ● seminal receptacles: part of female system, store sperm from another individual after copulation ● *hermaphrodite ■ earthworm cs ● cuticle: outer acellular layer ● true coelomate ● two muscle layers: outer circular layer, and inner longitudinal ● peritoneum: separates muscular layers form coelom ● intestine with typhlosole (folding) that increases surface area for absorption ● dorsal and ventral vessels ○ class hirudinea (leeches) ■ ectoparasites: live on body surface of organism ■ anterior sucker and mouth, posterior sucker an anus ■ dorsoventrally flattened body ■ jaw and chitinous teeth for biting ■ hermaphrodite phylum rotifera ● one way digestion ● corona: crown of cilia around mouth for gathering food and locomotion ● mastax: grinds food ● lack organs for gas exchange and circulation ● pseudocoelomates ○ the rotifer (wm live) ■ narrow foot that ends in pointed spurs ■ corona II. the ECDYSOZOANS ● ecdysis: molting phylum nematoda (roundworms) ● free living or parasitic ● one way digestion ● pseudocoelomate ● not hermaphrodites ● lack organs for gas exchange and circulation ○ typical nematode male (wm) ■ mouth with three lobe like lips ■ spicules (hairs) around anus fx in copulation (gamete transfer) ■ gut tube and darkly stained gonads ○ typical nematode female (wm) ■ longer and stouter ■ large coiled oviduct and uterus (hides gut tube) ■ viviparous: give birth to live young ○ ascaris (cs) ■ cuticle, ectoderm, mesoderm (muscle), endoderm 11 ■ intestinal parasite ○ vinegar eel (live wm) ■ free-living nematode ■ feed on bacteria and yeast of vinegar production ■ transparent and small ○ parasitic nematodes ■ elephantitis: block lymph vessels causing fluid to build up in limbs and results on swelling ■ trichinosis: females retain eggs while they develop into larvae (ovoviviparous) and once they leave the mother bear through intestinal wall and develop cysts in skeletal muscle ● trichinella embedded in muscle tissue slide phylum onychophora ● tropical terrestrial habitat ● true coelomates ● distinct head, cylindrical body, unjointed legs (like annelids) ● “missing link” between annelids and arthropods (possess characteristics of each) ● open circulatory system ○ peripatus ■ thin flexible chitinous cuticle ■ unjointed legs (like annelids) move similar to annelids ■ three segmented head each with paired appendages: ● two pre antennae ● two oral papillae ● two horny jaws phylum arthropoda ● fully adapted to terrestrial life ● exoskeleton: rigid chitinous body covering ● segmented body plan ● jointed appendages ● open circulatory system ● true coelom (reduced in size) 1. subphylum trilobitomorpha ○ extinct primitive marine arthropods ○ the trilobites ■ three main body regions: ● head: four fused segments, pair of antennae and compound eyes ● thorax ● abdomen 2. subphylum chelicerata ○ lack antennae and mandibles ○ chelicerae: specialized fang-like feeding appendages ○ two body regions: ■ cephalothorax: fused head and thorax ■ abdomen class merostomata (horseshoe crab/ Limulus) preserved ■ compound eyes, gills, 5-6 appendages, chelicerae ■ carapace: hard shell-like outer covering ■ tail spine: used to push animal forward and right animal if overturned ■ cephalothorax: seven jointed appendages *1st is chelicerae 12 ■ abdomen: six jointed appendage, last five are book gills ■ class arachnida ■ terrestrial ■ no gills (modified to book lungs) ■ simple eyes ■ six pairs of jointed appendages (4 walking legs, 2 others including chelicerae) ■ Spiders: ● chelicerae and pedipalps used for feeding ● spinnerets: releases silk produced by glands to spin webs, posterior end of abdomen near anus ■ mites and ticks: ● ectoparasites ● cephalothorax and abdomen are fused (segmentation lost) ● chelicerae and pedipalps modified for piercing ● flat body makes difficult for host to remove ■ scorpions: ● first arthropod to adapt to land ● long slender abdomen with stinger 3. subphylum crustacea: ○ jaw like mandible for chewing ○ two pairs of antennae ○ biramous (two-branched) appendages ○ two body regions: cephalothorax and abdomen class malacostraca ■ common aquatic arthropods ■ respire by gills ■ crayfish: dorsal side ● carapace: saddle-like covers cephalothorax ● rostrum: anterior extension of cephalothorax that bears the eyes ● uropods: appendages near posterior end modified to a fan shape and used to
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