[01:146:295] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (11 pages long)

111 views11 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

Rutgers
01:146:295
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
1: Nerve Cells and Brain Anatomy
Chapter 2, Bear
Chapter 7, Bear
I. Basic Parts of a Neuron (= nerve cell)
A. Soma: cell body
B. Neurites: send and generate messages/electrical
signals
a. Dendrites
i. Dendritic Tree: dendrites from a
single neuron
ii. Receive input/signals from other
neurons at synapses
iii. Dendritic Spines: where
presynaptic cells release
neurotransmitters
1. Presynaptic cell neurotransmitters → receptors of postsynaptic
cell on dendrites → small electrical signal (Excitatory
Postsynaptic Potential and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential)
a. EPSP: more positive voltage
b. IPSP: more negative voltage change
2. Associated with loss of functionality
a. Learning and memory formation: dendritic spines change
in shape and size
b. Intellectual Disability: mentally disabled children have
fewer dendritic spines that are long and spindly
b. Axon: highly specialized for the transfer of information over distances in the
nervous system
i. Axon membrane contains voltage-gated sodium channels: responsible
for generating and propagating action potentials (NO AP IN
DENDRITES)
ii. Parts
1. Axon hillock: where axons come out of cell body; decides if
action potential threshold has been reached (important, because
only then will a neurotransmitter will be released at synapse)
2. Axon collaterals: branched axons
c. In Sensory Neurons...
i. Spike (Action Potential) Initiation Zone: spike begins at the very end of
the axon
ii. Cell bodies often close to the spinal cord
II. Glia
A. “Glue” that keeps brain and nervous system together
B. Cells in nervous systems that are not neurons
C. Supporting functions of nerve cells
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Myelinating Glia
Astrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal Cells
Oligodendrocytes
-found in CNS;
nucleus and cell
body wraps around
(up to) 50 axons
Schwann Cells
-Schwann Cells:
found in peripheral
NS; can wrap
around 1 axon
- star-shaped cells
- most numerous
glia in the brain
Function:
1. Fill space in
between neurons
2. Remove
neurotransmitters
after it has been
released, so another
signal can come in
3. Regulate ion
concentrations in
extracellular solution
Function:
1. Phagocytic:
remove debris left
by dead or
degenerating
neurons and glia
2. Can also remove
unnecessary
synapses = pruning
(a lot of pruning
during teenage
years)
** Schizophrenia**
- Too much pruning
- Too many
synapses are
removed
- line ventricles of
the brain; cilia
projecting into the
ventricle (filled
with cerebrospinal
fluid CSF)
-cilia help move
CSF through
ventricles
** You can
dEPEND on
EPENDymal cells
to separate CSF
from neural
cells**
- white matter: covered by myelin sheath
- Nodes of Ranvier: not covered by
myelin; where axonal membrane is
exposed
Function:
- Generate a layer of insulation (myelin)
around axons; cytoplasm sheet wrapped
around the axon
- Allows voltage change to travel further
down the axon (especially when it is
long)
**Multiple Sclerosis **
- Autoimmune disorder
- body’s own immune system attacks the
myelin, axon is exposed
- AP travels slower
- Signals cannot reach brain because
axon isn’t insulated so AP gets lost
- Symptoms: muscle weakness and
coordination, numbness (sensory signal
does not reach brain), etc
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class