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01:146:328 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Parasitism, Feces, Parasitic Life Cycle


Department
Cell Biology and Neuroscience
Course Code
01:146:328
Professor
A.Keating
Study Guide
Midterm

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01:146:328
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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September 5, 2018
PARASITES & HUMAN HEALTH
1. WORLD HEALTH
A. Leading Causes of death in US (CDC, 2015)
i. List provided online by Prof
ii. Only a few bacteria and viruses. No parasites.
B. Leading Causes of death in underdeveloped countries (WHO, 2015)
i. Malaria
ii. More prevalent in different parts of the world.
iii. Americas mostly uncommunicable diseases
iv. Other parts communicable diseases
C. United Nations
i. Millennium Development Goals
1. Began in 2010
2. 8 Goals: (can find on google)
3. Goal #6:
BIG THREE
a. HIV/AIDS
i. ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICATIONS
b. TUBERCULOSIS
i. Antibiotic and vaccine development
ii. VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
c. MALARIA
i. Drugs for treatment
ii. Bed nets for prevention
4. SDGs are more specific than MGDs
a. MDGs halfway goals
i. Ex: 50 out of the 100 are not in poverty
b. SDGs zero goals
i. Ex: 100 out 100 are not in poverty
5. Other than the big three, most funding has bypassed other diseases
a. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)
D. NTDs 17 diseases
i. Helminth worm
1. Foodborne trematodiases (trematode infection)
a. About 56 million at risk
2. Schistosomiases
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2
a. About 200 million at risk
3. Cysticercosis / Taeniasis
4. Echinococcosis
5. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs)
a. About 1.5 billion at risk
6. Lymphatic filariasis
a. About 900 million at risk
7. Onchocerciosis
a. About 90 million at risk
8. Dracunculiasis
ii. Protozoa
1. Human African trypanosomiasis
a. (Sleeping sickness)
b. About 60 million at risk
2. Chagas disease
a. About 25 million at risk
3. Leishmaniasis
a. About 350 million at risk
iii. Bacteria
1. Buruli ulcer
a. Mycobacterium ulcerans
b. Produces mycolactone toxin that results in lesions and tissue death
c. Can lead to long term disability and death
2. Leprosy (Hansen disease)
a. Mycobacterium leprae
i. Affects skin, peripheral nerves, mucosal surfaces of upper
respiratory tract and eyes
ii. Is NOT easily transmissible
iii. IS curable
3. Trachoma
a. Chlamydia trachomatis
i. Leading cause of worlds infectious blindness eyelids turn
into eye pushing eyelashes inward and scratching on eyeball
ii. Transmitted by flies and contact with fomites (inanimate
object like a doorknob or towel)
b. Yaws
i. Treponema pallidum pertenue
ii. Related to syphilis
iii. Transmitted by skin contact
iv. Affects skin, bone and cartilage
4. Viruses
a. Dengue/Severe dengue
i. Fever, aches, rashes
ii. Hemorrhage fever bleeding
b. Rabies
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