# 01:160:161 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Colligative Properties, Mole Fraction, Boiling PointExam

by OC2390897

School

Rutgers UniversityDepartment

ChemistryCourse Code

01:160:161Professor

Asbed VassiliaStudy Guide

FinalThis

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PRACTICE PROBLEMS WITHOUT DETAILED SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 14 - PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS

• SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS CONCEPTS (Molarity, mole fraction, etc.)

• SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS CALCULATIONS (Molarity, mole fraction, etc.)

• ENERGETICS OF SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY CONCEPTS

• ENERGETICS OF SOLUTIONS AND SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

• VAPOR PRESSURE OF SOLUTIONS CONCEPTS (Henry’s Law, Raoult’s Law)

• VAPOR PRESSURE OF SOLUTIONS CALCULATIONS

• COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES (BOILING POINT, FREEZING POINT, OSMOTIC PRESSURE

CHANGES) CONCEPTS

• COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES (BOILING POINT, FREEZING POINT, OSMOTIC PRESSURE

CHANGES) CALCULATIONS

• MISCELLANEOUS (INCLUDING COLLOIDS)

E. Tavss, PhD

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FORMULAS

Mass percent = grams of solute/100 g solution

Molarity = moles of solute/L of solution

Molality = moles of solute/kilogram of solvent

PPM = grams of solute/1,000,000 grams solution

Volume percent = volume of solute/100 mL of solution

Proof = 2 x Vol. %; e.g., 2 x 40 mL/100 mL solution = 80 proof

Mole fraction : XA = nA/(nA + nB) XA + XB = 1

Particle fraction : iXA = inA/(inA + inB) iXA + iXB = 1

Raoult’s law: Psoln = iXsolventPo

solvent

iXsolvent = insolvent/(insolvent + insolute)

iXA + iXB = 1

PTotal = PA + PB = iXAPo

A + iXBPo

B

van’t Hoff factor, “i”; i = moles of particles in solution/moles of solute dissolved

Boiling-point elevation: ΔT = Tf – Ti = Kbimsolute

Freezing-point depression: ΔT = Tf – Ti = -Kfimsolute

(+Kf gives absolute change in temp; -Kf gives actual Tf or Ti)

Osmotic pressure: πV = inRT

π = (n/V)iRT = iMsoluteRT

ΔHsoln = ΔHsolute-solutebondbreaking + ΔHsolvent-solventbondbreaking + ΔHsolute-solventbondforming

ΔHhydr = ΔHsolvent-solventbondbreaking + ΔHsolute-solventbondforming

ΔHsoln = ΔHsolute-solutebondbreaking + ΔHhydr

Henry’s Law: XA=kPA; XA = mole fraction of dissolved gas in solution

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SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS CONCEPTS

CHEM 162-2010 EXAM I

Chapter 12 – Properties of Solutions

7. A solution can be carefully prepared to hold more solute than the maximum solubility. Such a solution

is called

A. supersaturated

B. subsaturated

C. saturated

D. isotonic

E. hypertonic

CHEM 162-2009 EXAM I

CHAPTER 12 – PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS

21. Which of the following statements is true regarding molality and molarity?

A. Neither molality nor molarity depend on temperature.

B. Both molality and molarity depend on temperature.

C. Molarity depends on temperature but molality does not.

D. Molality depends on temperature but molarity does not.

E. Temperature dependence of molality and molarity depends on the material.

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