01:160:159 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Oxygen, Ap Chemistry, Hydrogen

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01:160:159
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AP Chemistry
A. Allan
Chapter 1 Notes - Chemical Foundations
1.1 Chemistry: An Overview
A. Reaction of hydrogen and oxygen
1. Two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to
form two molecules of water
2H2 + O2 2H2O
2. Decomposition of water
2H2O 2H2 + O2
B. Problem Solving in Chemistry (and life)
1. Making observations
2. Making a prediction
3. Do experiments to test the prediction
1.2 The Scientific Method
A. General Framework
1. Making observations
a. Quantitative ( measurement)
b. Qualitative (color, phase, shape, etc)
2. Making a prediction
3. Do experiments to test the prediction
B. Vocabulary
1. Observation
a. Something that is witnessed and can be recorded
2. Theory (Model)
a. Tested hypotheses that explains WHY nature behaves in
a certain way
b. Theories change as more information becomes available
3. Natural Law
a. A summary of observed, measurable behavior
1.3 Units of Measurement
A. Measurements
1. Number and Scale (units) are both essential
"The number without the units is worthless!"
B. SI system
Important SI Units for Chemistry
Mass
kilogram
kg
Length
meter
m
Time
second
s
Temperature
Kelvin
K
Amount of Substance
mole
mol
Volume
liter
L
1
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C. SI Prefixes
mega
M
1,000,000
106
kilo
k
1,000
103
hecto
h
100
102
deka
da
10
101
nano
0.000000001
10-9
micro
0.000001
10-6
milli
0.001
10-3
centi
0.01
10-2
deci
0.1
10-1
1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement
A. Recording Measurements (Significant figures)
1. Record all digits that are certain
2. Record the first digit that is uncertain (all measurements have some
degree of uncertainty)
3. Uncertainty in the last number is + 1, unless otherwise noted
B. Accuracy
1. The agreement of a particular value with the accepted value
C. Precision
1. The degree of agreement among several measurements made in
the same way
"You can be precise, but not accurate. If you are accurate, you are
necessarily precise."
D. Errors
1. Random Errors (indeterminate errors)
a. Measurements may be high or low
b. Causes:
1) Interpretation of the uncertain digit
2) Procedural ineptness
2. Systematic Errors
a. Always occur in the same direction
b. Caused by poor measurement calibration
1) gun sight set too high/low
2) balance improperly zeroed
3) thermometer improperly marked
2
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