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Roman Mythology Final Guide.docx

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Mythology Guide  Week 8 Heracles: (Roman- Hercules) son of Alcmena and Zeus Alcmena: slept with Zeus who was disguised as Amphitryon Amphitryon: Alcemena’s husband who was on an expedition Eurystheus: assigned Heracles the Twelve Labors, became king instead of Heracles, born early Megara: first wife who was (or was not) killed along with her children by Heracles (who was in a fit of madness caused by Hera) Deianira: third wife who Heracles had to fight over with river god Achelous, was almost raped by Nessus, was tricked into taking poisoned blood/semen, and poisoned Heracles shirt (which led to his death) Nessus: a centaur that Heracles paid to carry Deianira across a river, attempted to rape her in the middle of the river, was shot by Heracles, got revenge by giving Deianira poisoned blood/semen claiming it was a love potion Iole: caused Deianira to be jealous because of her beauty Philoctetes: a male lover of Heracles (?), was wounded and abandoned on Lemnos with Heracles’s bow and arrows but was recovered and participated in the Trojan war Twelve Labors 1. Nemean Lion: Attempted to kill with arrows, when it didn’t work he trapped the Lion in a cave (two entrances) and strangled it to death. 2. Lernean Hydra: Attempted to kill by cutting off heads, when he realized that the heads would just keep growing, his nephew Iolaus realized fire would scorch the neck. Hera realized that Heracles was winning, and sent a giant crab that was crushed by Heracles foot. (Labor was discounted) 3. Ceryneian Deer: Artimis’s deer with golden antlers and hooves of bronze (brass) that can outrun any arrow. Heracles either chased the deer for a full year, caught it while it was sleeping, had Artimis tell him his task was complete, or trapped the deer with an arrow between the forelegs. 4. Erymanthian Boar: Chiron advised Heracles to lure the boar into think snow where he bound it and carried it back to Eurystheus 5. Augean Stables: Assigned to clean out Augeas’s stables and did so by rerouting the rivers Alpheus and Peneus to wash out the dung (Labor was discounted) 6. Stymphalian birds: Frightened birds into the air with a rattle given by Athena, as the birds flew into the air Heracles shot many of them. 7. Cretan bull: Snuck up on the bull, strangled it, and shipped it back to Athens Page 1 Mythology Guide  8. Horses of Diomedes: Mad, man-eating horses (unnatural diet) caught by Heracles after he fed them Diomedes 9. Belt of Hippolyte: Hippolyta gave belt willingly, but because Hera spread rumors there was a battle and Heracles ended up killing her, took the belt, and sailed away 10. Geryon’s cattle: Heracles killed two-headed dog, Orthrus, and herdsman, Eurytion, Geryon, and herded the cattle back to Eurystheus 11. Apples of Hesperides: Caught the Old Man of the Sea for Garden of the Hesperides location, then ran into Anteaus who was invincible as long as he touched Gaia, got Atlas to retrieve the apples from the tree, tricked him into taking the sky back 12. Cerberus: Three headed guard dog of the underworld, Heracles asked Hades for permission and also met Theseus (who he rescued from the chair thing) parerga/side labors: Argonauts and Golden Fleece, accidentally killed Iphitus (Iole’s brother), served as slave for Queen Omphale of Lydia, married Omphale, joined Argo with Hylas, Hylas was kidnapped (or drowned), rescued Prometheus Theseus: founder/king of Athens, son of Aethra and Poseidon/Aegeus, sandals and sword under rock, encountered six entrance of the underworld Sinis/Pityocampes: Isthmian entrance, robber who captured travelers and tied them between two pine tries and tore them apart, was killed by Theseus with his own method Damastes/Procrustes: the Stretcher who had two beds and made passerbyers fit into the bed by stretching or cutting them, was killed by Theseus who cut off his feet and decapitated him Minos: King of Crete, made Aegeus send 7 males/7 females every seven years as tributes (devoured by Minotaur Pasiphae: wife of King Minos and fell in love with the Creten Bull (because of Poseidon) and had Daedalus build her a fake cow so she could hide in it, gave birth to the Minotaur Ariadne: fell in love and gave Theseus a ball of thread to find his way out of Labyrinth, was abandoned on a beach to be Dionysus’s wife Minotaur: half-man, half-bull, eats people, lived in Labyrinth, and died by Theseus Daedalus: genius inventor, craftsmen, and artisian who created the Labyrinth, trapped by Minos, escaped with wings, refuge in Sicily, solved Minos’s riddle, killed his nephew Perdix Icarus: Daedalus’s son who died by flying to close to the sun Lapiths vs. Centaurs: wedding feast of Pirithous, centaurs get drunk, Eurytion attempts to rape the bride, battle, Theseus came to Lapiths aird apotheosis: the glorification of a subject to divine level (like heroes) ideology: set of ideas that constitutes one’s goals, expectations, and actions (way of looking at things) Page 2 Mythology Guide  autochthony: originating where found Erichthonios: born from Hephaestus’s semen that Athena wiped off and threw to the ground, became king of Athens Week 9 Cadmus: brother of Europa, founded Thebes, grandfather of Labdacus Harmonia: (Roman- Concordia) immortal goddess of harmony and concord Spartoi: men born from dragon’s teeth planted into the ground Labdacus: ripped apart in bacchic frenzy for disrespecting Dionysus, grandfather of Oedipus Zethos: son of Antiope and Zeus, twin of Amphion, became a hunter and herdsmen, married Thebe, killed himself Amphion: son of Antiope and Zeus, twin of Zethos, became a singer and musician, married Niobe (7 boys/7 girls), kills himself or died by Apollo’s arrows Antiope: raped by Zeus disguised as satyr Laius/Laios: husband of Jocasta, father of Oedipus, descendants are cursed Sphinx: defeated by Oedipus who answered the riddle correctly Oedipus/Oidipous: son of Laius and Jocasta, killed his father, married his mother, had children, brought disaster on his city, is exiled Jocasta/Iocaste: wife of Laius, wife and mother of Oedipus, kills herself by hanging Tiresias/Teiresias: blind prophet of Thebes, famous for clairvoyance and being transformed into a women for 7 years, gave Laius prophecy about Oedipus Creon: ruler of Thebes, brother of Jocasta, takes over after Oedipus and exiles him Polynices: son of Oedipus and Jocasta, brother of Eteocles, attacks his brother when he refuses to give up the throne, by order of Creon left unburied Eteocles: son of Oedipus and Jocasta, brother of Eteocles, refuses to give up the throne, killed, buried with full honors Adrastus: king of Argos during the war of Seven Against Thebes Hypsipyle: Queen of Lemnos, Aphrodite cursed the island’s women and they developed body odor, women killed all the men in revenge, Hysipyle spared her father, affair with Jason, gave birth to Euneus and Nebrophonus Seven against Thebes 1. Polynices: (Thebes) Eteocles’s brother, was supposed to share rule, end up killing each other Page 3 Mythology Guide  2. Adrastus: (Argos) king of Argos during war, Polynices’s and Tydeus’s father-in-law, was the only survivor, convinced to retrieve the other bodies (except Polynices) to bury them 3. Capaneus: during the siege of Thebes, was killed by Zeus because of his arrogance 4. Tydeus: mortally wounded by Melanippus, Athena refused to make him immortal after he devoured Melanippus’s brains in rage 5. Hippomedon: killed in battle by Ismarus 6. Parthenopaeus: killed by Periclymenus, Amphidicus, or Asphodicus 7. Amphiarus: knew the expedition would fail, Polynices bribed Eriphyle (Amphiarus’s bride) to persuade him, he asked his sons to avenge his inevitable death by killing her. Epigonoi: sons of the Argive heroes who fought and died in the Theban war Antigone: daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta, sister of Ismene, buries her brother Polynices and is punished, entombed in stone, hangs herself Ismene: daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta, sister of Antigone, does not bury Polynices, but towards the end regrets it Haemon: son of Creon, betrothed to Antigone, kills himself after Antigone is found dead Sophocles: one of the three ancient Greek tragedians (Ajax, Antigone, Oedipus the King, etc) Sigmund Freud: Austrian neurologist who founded psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic approach to myth 1. Oedipus complex: desire for the mother in both sexes Archetypes: model of a person, personality, behavior Week 10 Homer: author of the Iliad and Odyssey Peleus: won Thetis by overcoming her ability to change forms, father of Achilles Thetis: destined to give birth to a son that would surpass his father, so she was married to Peleus, mother of Achilles, made him invulnerable by dipping him in the River of Stynx or burning him over a fire Achilles: invulnerable except for his ankle, tricked by Odysseus into participating in the Trojan War, almost withdraws from war until his friend Patroclus was killed by Hector, killed Hector, and died by Paris’s arrow Helen: most beautiful women in the world, married to Menelaus, kidnapped/fell in love with Paris, caused the war Paris (Alexander): chosen by Zeus to pick the most beautiful goddess, picked Aphrodite, rewarded with Helen, killed Achilles, Page 4 Mythology Guide  Menelaus: King of Mycenaean Sparta, husband of Helen Agamemnon: King of Mycenae, husband of Clytemnestra, killed his daughter to appease Artemis, killed by wife and her lover (Clytemnestra and Aegisthus) when he returned from war Iphigenia: daughter of Agamemnon who was sacrificed Briseis: given to Achilles as a war prize, taken by Agamemnon, given back to Achilles Odysseus/Ulysses: wooden horse “gift”, forced to participate in war Ajax son of Telamon: dueled Hector twice, rescued Patroclus’s body from being stolen, Ajex the Great Ajax son of Oileus: Ajax the Lesser, violently dragged Cassandra out of Athena’s temple and raped her Diomedes: King of Argos, on Greek’s side Patroclus/Patroklos: Achilles friend, pretended to be Achilles when he refused to fight, killed by Hector Priam: King of Troy, goes to Achilles and begs for the body of his son (Hector) and Achilles returned the body and held a temporary truce, killed by Achilles son Pyrrhus Hector/Hektor: Prince of Troy, killed Patroclus, ran away from Achilles but was convinced to fight him by Athena who was pretending to be his brother Hecuba: wife of Priam, mother of Hector, Paris, and Cassandra Andromache: Hector’s wife Astyanax: Son of Hector, Crown Prince of Troy Aeneas: Trojan hero, son of Aphrodite and Anchises, founder of Rome Cassandra: gifted with prophecy, c
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