COMM 101 Study Guide for Exam 2 (Got 95% on the test)

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Communication and Information
Nick Linardopoulos

1 Communication 101 Spring 2013 Information Processes 2.26.13 Let’s play the Telephone Game! - An important, inherent part to the communication process is receiving information (remember?) - Information reception is o Active and complex o Difficult to retain for long periods of time o Possible with practice Information Reception Process - Information selection o We select certain messages and disregard others o Hearing: Receiving information and being physically able to hear the message o Listening: When you pay attention and really understand the message o Motivations for selecting noises and sounds:  Accomplishing goals  Wouldn’t be able to concentrate if we weren’t continuously selecting message o Selective attention (we attend to messages and select certain ones) - Interpretation o Assigning meaning or significance to selected messages - Retention o Involves storing and actively using information o Recall vs. Recognition  Recall: The deliberate action to remember information  Recognition: You don’t need to really make an effort in remembering something  Automatic Receiver Influences - We have characteristics and backgrounds that influence how we select, interpret, and retain messages - These include our needs, attitudes, beliefs, values, and goals, among others Needs - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o We will choose messages depending on our needs o Most basic needs are at the bottom 2 Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values - Perceptions that we have and that guide us in our lives - Attitude o A predisposition to something; a preference o Your feeling about something o Ex: “I like school” - Beliefs o An underlying conviction about something o Less about how I feel about something but more about how I think about something o Ex: “I think school is important” - Values o A deeply-rooted specific belief; central to your way of life o Guide you through your life  Guide your actions o Ex: You come to school because you value education Goals - What are your goals? o Your purposes o Can change and they do change all the time o E.g. to graduate from college - To achieve your goals: o Exposure to sources/situations that are in-line with your goal will help you to succeed (1) o Your goal will increase contact with other people who have the similar goal (2) - E.g., if your goal is to graduate from college with a BA in Communication, you will likely (1) take communication classes, come to class, read the text; and (2) becomes friends with the people you meet in those communication classes Message (Information) Influences - Origin - Mode - Physical Characteristics - Organization - Novelty Origin and Mode - Origin o Source credibility o FOX vs. NBC  Republican (conservative) vs. Democratic (liberal)  When your beliefs are similar to a certain source you find it more credible so the origin of the news will determine the credibility to different people  Republicans prefer FOX and Democratic prefer NBC - Mode o How the information is presented to you o Visual, tactile, auditory, gustatory, olfactory o Can greatly very the messages sent and received 3 Physical Characteristics and Organization - Physical Characteristics o Size, Color, Brightness  Large and/or bright objects get more attention - Organization o Primacy  Information that is presented to us early on is information that we will recall first o Recency  Information that is the most recently presented to us is the information that we will recall first  The last thing that we were told Novelty - Information that is unfamiliar, novel, or unusual; it stands out and “grabs attention” o Language, appearance - Video: Frazier clip, woman dancing really badly o They paid attention to her because her dancing was so unusual, strange, and different o The dancing was a novelty Information Processes 2.28.13 Source Influences - Proximity - Attractiveness - Similarity - Credibility - Authoritativeness - Motivation - Intent - Delivery - Status - Power - Authority Proximity (Source Influences) - The science of distance - The closer something is, the more likely we will attend to it, interpret it, and retain it Attractiveness and Similarity (Source Influences) - First impressions are based on appearance o If we find them attractive or similar to us we pay more attention - Physical vs. Social Attraction o Not just beauty, but what is communicated (e.g., personality, warmth) - Similarity o Drawn to similar sources o Look, talk, language, way that they speak, personality, traits, etc 4 Authoritativeness and Credibility (Source Influences) - Authoritativeness: Authority figure (a parent, US president) o Power because of their role - Credibility: Experience and knowledge of a source (professors, doctors) o Expertise in a certain field (experts) Motivation (Source Influences) - What is a source’s motivation to provide information? - Is this person trying to help me, or make me buy something I don’t need, or teach me something? o Depending on their motivation the listener will react to information differently Environment - Context o When and where - Repetition o The more we hear something the more likely we are to remember and take it into consideration or into account Communication 101 Spring 2013 Verbal Communication 2.28.13 Verbal Communication = Language (spoken/written) - Verbal communication = language - Language is foundational to social life o Language helps us to convey ideas, thoughts, opinions, information - Language is symbolic o It represents ideas, objects, people  John is not the person himself but a word that represents an individual - Language is rule-governed o We have knowledge on how to use language (what words to choose, how to organize it so it makes sense) o Grammar  For example: “I drove that car” vs. “that I car drove” Core dimensions of language systems - Syntax - Semantics - Pragmatics Two ways to view language: a window to the world or a paintbrush that guides the way we understand the world Window: to describe reality Paintbrush: to construct reality Syntax - The way words are combined into sentences - The order of the words 5 o Remember? “I drove that car” vs. “that I car drove - As in Grammar rules o The structure of language (again, how words are combined into sentences) Semantics - The meanings we attach to words and other symbols o Remember the communication iceberg  Meaning is hidden o Remember that we are negotiating meaning through communication o Remember field of experience  Everyone’s unique background and experiences  Culture, history, etc  How we attach meaning to different symbols o Meanings are subjective  Meanings are not fixed and/or set in stone Symbols vs. referents (Semantics) - Principle of non-identity (A ≠A) o Words ≠“things” they represent - Principle of non-allness (A ≠All A) o A symbol does not represent everything that its referent is o John does not mean all the Johns but only one specific John - Principle of self-reflexiveness o Metacommunication: talk about talk  How we perceive the communication (action, behavior, message)  Communicating about the communication  “Why are you yelling?”  “I’m not yelling..this is just how I talk!” “Why are you saying I’m yelling?” o Metacommunication  Content messages/relationship message  Content: What is actually being said  Relationship: Inferences that can be made about the relationship between the parties involved in the communication  EX: “Mom I’m taking the car keys tonight” o Content: That the child is taking the car tonight o Relationship: The child doesn’t care whether their mom says yes or no  The child and mother have a relationship where the child doesn’t care to ask permission but instead tells Words shape reality (Semantics) - Sapir & Whorf hypothesis (paint brush perspective) o Language shapes the way we perceive, and think about the world  Connotations  Loftus experiment: they showed about 100 participants a real video of a car crash o 50 were asked: how fast were the cars going when they hit each other 6 o 50 were asked: how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other o The group that was asked “smashed” had higher MPH ratings then the “hit” groups  The connotations that came with the words influenced people’s responses  Vocabulary (various words vs. few words for a phenomenon [e.g., colors])  some have many words to describe the color blue but others have one or two  Alaska has many words for the word “Snow” for different types of snow but we only have one - Language – not a neutral medium for expressing ideas o Shapes, constraints, and limit what we think about the world Pragmatics - How language is used in practice to accomplish actions - Refers to how we use language in accordance to social rules o Rules that guide us in interaction - Pragmatic rules: o Cooperativeness  Don’t state the obvious, make relevant comments  Acknowledge the other persons ideas/comments o Informativeness  Don’t mislead, exaggerate, or withhold information o Responsiveness  Accommodating to the needs of interactants; being clear  Being sensitive to the other o Interactiveness  Initiating interaction, establishing a conversation, turn taking as the conversation progresses, topic shifting, closing (organization of talk) o Conformance  Obligation to adhere to rules, able to provide an explanation when a violations occurs - The Great Debate: video o Pragmatic rule being violated in the video is:  They have a debate but each speaker doesn’t give a reason or explanation for their yes or no answer  The audience has a social expectation for an explanation but none was given  It was The Great Debate, but there was no debate - To sum, language both reflects and shapes out personal perceptions and our social behaviors - Language is powerful, constructing our realities (social, cultural, personal, interpersonal) Nonverbal Communication 3.5.13 Characterize this person: (PICTURE) 7 - Plays the guitar - He’s a rebel (bad boy) - Plays in a band: because of his guitar - Probably not happy: because of his facial expression - Looks like he does drugs Nonverbal Communication - How did you decide what you thought about these people - Nonverbal messages = information beyond spoken words o E.g., clothes, facial expressions, body gestures, hair, anything that can send a message (the sofa, the wall, the guitar) - Nonverbal Communication designates all those human responses which are not described as overtly manifested in words (either written or spoken) (Mark Knapp) o Nonverbal Communication is usually more effective, more honest, and more reliable than Verbal Communication - Nonverbal messages have a great impact on our interpretation of people and situations - Nonverbal communication, like verbal communication (language), is rule-governed o E.g., a handshake  Syntax  The organization of movement o Walking up to the person, putting out your hand, shaking the person’s hand, and finally taking back your hand  Semantics  The meaning behind it o Greeting/respect but also the situation, the relationship  Pragmatics  The social rules o It is socially acceptable to shake hands when you first meet them and maybe when you are leaving o It is socially accepted that a handshake should be done upright Nonverbal Channels - Paralanguage
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