Final Exam Condensed Notes (Everything you need to know)

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Rutgers University
Communication and Information
Nick Linardopoulos

1 Communication 101 Spring 2013 Communication and the Self 3.28.13 Who are You? (The Self) - Take a minute to write a few words about who you are - Self: our developed, perceived personal identity o -is dynamic, not something that we are born knowing - How does a self develop? o Nature vs. Nurture: a personality as something that we have vs. an identity as something that we do and perceive o The information – use environments to guide the way we perceive ourselves (our identity) and our behavior  Geographical – where we live (house, state, country)  Interpersonal – interaction with another person (one friend/one parent)  Group – Similar to interpersonal but with a larger group (a group of friends/whole family)  Cultural – individuals who may not know each other but are connected by the same ethnicity, national affiliation The Development of Self-Concept Perceptions of others’ responses Self-Concept Responses Behavior 2 Erving Goffman: The Self - Self is presented and constructed through everyday communication and interaction with others (remember the different environments?) - Self = our perception of who we are - Face = our positive image that we present to others o Public image - Facework = how we present our self to others o Expressions given  Instrumental communication (The what) o Expressions given off  Expressive communication (The how) - All the world is a stage o “We spend most of our time not engages in giving information but in giving shows” (Goffman, 1974, p.508) All The World is a Stage: Burke’s Dramatistic Pentad - Act o What the person does o Speech - Scene o Context surrounding the act o Where the speech is taking place - Agent o The person who is performing the act o Speaker - Agency o The means used to deliver the message or accomplish the act o How the speaker uses language  Metaphors, levels of language, etc - Purpose o Goal for the act 3 o Speaker uses a speech to convince the audience - Attitude o The manner the agent positions themselves relative to the audience o Speaker positions themselves as their leader Goffman and Burke: People take into consideration their environments when communicating, acting, and interacting. This consideration shapes the way we see ourselves within these environments (in interaction) Theory (ies) - The Looking-Glass Self o Imagine how we appear to others o Imagine their judgment of our appearance - The Self-Fulfilling prophecy o A cyclical process where our actions influence – and are influences – by our perceptions  Prediction: “I am bad at Math and will fail the class”  Actions: Not putting much effort and missing class  Outcome: Failing the class The Johari Window Known to self Unknown to self Known to others Unknown to others - Quadrant 1 o Open self; known to self and others - Quadrant 2 o Blind self; known to others but not to self - Quadrant 3 o Hidden self; known to self but not others - Quadrant 4 o Unknown self; unknown to both self and others Video: Elaine’s Bad Dancing - This is in the Blind self because everyone around her can see that she is a bad dancer but this fact is unknown to her and she thinks that she is a decent dancer 4 Communication 101 Spring 2013 Interpersonal Communication I 4.4.13 Relationships and Interpersonal Communication - Relationship o A relationship is formed whenever reciprocal message processing occurs o When communication is present and takes place between two people there is a relationship - Interpersonal Communication o Is the means through which all relationships are initiated, maintained, shaped, reshaped, and in some cases, are terminated Communication and Relationships - Characteristics of relationships o Mutual awareness  Both parties has some degree of awareness of the other person and the relationship o Developed through coordinated interaction  Intimacy, uncertainty, and self disclosure o Analyzed and evaluated as they develop o Influenced by outside forces  EX: family, Friends, career, distance, background o Enabling and limiting  Enabling  emotional support/social support  Limiting  Job offer in another state but the relationship may hinder you from taking it  Limits your autonomy and time for other relationships o Constructed and maintained through communication Intimacy, Uncertainty, and Self Disclosure - Intimacy o Closeness o It’s a process: we do intimacy rather than have intimacy  Self-expression>partner response>positive perception of the response o Verbal: “I love you” o Non-verbal: A kiss - Uncertainty o Relational uncertainty: Doubts people have about their personal relationships o Relational uncertainty stems from three sources  Self Uncertainty: doubts about your own involvement and feelings in the relationship  Partner Uncertainty: doubts about the other person involvement and feelings in the relationship  Relationship Uncertainty: doubts about the relationship as a whole  Can we make it together? 5 o Relational uncertainty is uncomfortable so people seek to reduce it - Self Disclosure o Sharing or revealing intimate information o The Onion analogy (outer layers; central layers; reciprocity)  Gradually reveal aspects of our personality and identity by peeling off layers like we peel off layers on an onion - More self disclosure > less uncertainty > more intimacy o Suggesting that relationships develop through communication - Swingers movie clip o Mike is calling Nikki and he tries to leave a message o He tries to leave his number but keeps getting cut off and he calls back multiple times o Through these messages he discloses too much and just looks crazy o She finally picks up and tells him to never call him again o Shows bits of all three uncertainty sources (continue next lecture) (Continuation from last lecture) Communication 101 Spring 2013 Interpersonal Communication II 4.9.13 Relationships and Interpersonal Communication - Relationship o A relationship is formed whenever reciprocal message processing occurs - Interpersonal communication o Is the means through which all relationships are initiated, maintained, shaped, reshaped, and in some cases, are terminated Interpersonal Communication - Two dominant types of models or relationship development: o State models o Stage models State Models of Relationship Development - Characteristics of individuals drive relationship formation and stability o Who we are determines what relationships we will have and with who - Factors affecting relationships o Proximity  Distance/availability  Where you are will determine who you will meet because they may be available to you o Similarity  More things you have in common the more time you will probably want to spend with them o Complementary needs  We look for people who like to do things we don’t but have to do  One is more outgoing while the other is more shy 6 o The shy person benefits because in social settings the outgoing person can take the lead. o The outgoing person benefits because they get someone that will listen to them without taking the spotlight away o Temporary states  All about circumstances  A jock going to a nerd to get help and they becoming friends  A random college roommate because you may not have original wanted to be friends with someone like your roommate but because you live together and spend so much time with each other you can become friends  Because you have a common goal to accomplish Stage Models of Relationship Development - Different behaviors are enacted as relationships develop over time - Gradual and dynamic - Ability to negotiate relational stages determines relationship development - Relationship definitions are negotiated through communication o Using nicknames after a certain point and this defines the stage of the relationship  Seinfield clip:  Nickname calling: Schmoopy  They are comfortable and committed enough to call each other schmoopy o So we can determine what stage they are in - Communication are the core of relationships The Staircase Model - Knapp & Vangelisti (2004) 7 Relational Communication - How messages define, reinforce, or modify the relationship that exists between interactants - Every message has a content and relational component o The content component refers to the “informative” semantic or conventional meaning o The relational component refers to the implications of the message for the relationship  What the message implies about the relationship - Messages reflect and shape relationships Examples - “Can I use your car this afternoon” o Content: I need a car this afternoon o Relational: These two are close enough to share a car - “I can help you with that class paper” o Content: Offering help with a class o Relational: The one offering may want to get to know and get closer to the other - “Dinner’s on me this time” o Content: They are offering to buy dinner o Relational: They’ve had dinner together before (know each other) and they take turns paying for dinner Relational Patterns - Supportive and defensive climates - Progressive and regressive spirals - Dependencies and counter dependencies Supportive and Defensive Climates - Supportive o “I” statements and sentences  I appreciate how understanding you are being  I feel uncomfortable when I’m getting yelled at  Using “I” takes responsibility o Describing, maintaining, reflecting - Defensive o “You” statements and sentences  You are always doing this  Using “You” blames the other person o Evaluating, controlling, dismissing Regressive and Progressive Spirals - Regressive Spirals o Reciprocated negative behavior cycles o Negative  Sarah: This salad is too salty  Ben: You always criticize me  Sarah: Oh, you’re just too sensitive and childish  Ben: ME?! You are childish and too sensitive  Sarah: You never listen, you always play the victim - Progressive Spirals 8 o Positive  Sarah: I think this salad is too salty this time  Ben: Thanks for telling me. I’ll put less salt next time  Sarah: Only if you think it’s too salty. What do you think?  Ben: It’s an ok salad, but you may be right, it needs a bit less salt  Sarah: How about next time we make it together. I would love to make dinner with you Dependencies and Counter Dependencies - Dependency Relationship o One individual in a relationship is highly dependent on another for support, money, work, leadership, or guidance o Children and parents - Counter Dependency Relationship o One individual relates to the other not as a dependent but as equal or as an opponent o Co-workers o Spouse (?) sometimes - Remember: Relational patterns are created by and are reflected in the communication between partners Communication 101 Spring 2013 Family Communication I 4.11.13 Family Communication Remember? - Relationship o A relationship is formed whenever reciprocal message processing occurs - Interpersonal Communication o Is the means through which all relationships are initiated, maintained, shaped, reshaped, and in some cases, are terminated So… - Family constitutes a unique relational unit where interpersonal communication reflects, shapes, reshapes, and maintains the relationship among members o Family is important because family teaches us how to socialize and communication with others  Family also takes a role in shaping us What is Family? - A group of two or more individuals that are related by birth, marriage, or an adoption, and reside together in a household o Structural definition o Issues: What if you don’t live with your parents? What if your grandparents don’t live with you? - A social unit that is responsible for nurturing and socializing of its members 9 o Task-oriented definition o Ex: emotional support, financial support, feed, teach them what’s right and wrong, etc o Issues: What about teachers? What about religious leaders? They teach us to socialize, what’s right and wrong, etc. Does that make them family? - A group of individuals who interact among themselves to generate a sense of home and group identity, commitment, and a history o Transactional definition o Issues: What about Fraternities/Sororities? What the professor thinks is a good definition - People who are biologically and/or psychologically related whom historical, emotion, or economic bonds connect, and who perceive themselves as a part of a household - Every family has a structure, which is an invisible set of functional demands that organizes the way in which family members interact Types of Families - Nuclear Family o A father, mother, (a) child(ren), a dog(maybe) o Constituting approximately 25% of all U.S. families today - Other types of families o Single-parent family, remarried/blended/step family, child-free family, gay/lesbian family What is Family Communication? - The aspects and characteristics of the communication process between family members - Relationship messages play a significant role - Communication creates, maintains, reflects, and shapes family relationships A Definition - “Messages that are typically sent with intent, that are typically perceived as intentional, and that have consensually shared meaning among individuals who are related biologically, legally, or through marriage-like commitments and who nurture and control each other.” o LePoire, 2006, p.16 Communication 101 Spring 2013 Family Communication II 4.16.13 Family Communication: A Definition - “Messages that are typically sent with intent, that are typically perceived as intentional, and that have consensually shared meaning among individuals who are related biologically, legally, or through marriage-like commitments and who nurture and control each other.” o LePoire, 2006, p.16 Family Systems Theory - Each family has a structure made up of and maintained through the interaction among family members (who are elements of the family system) o To achieve goals that the family has, the elements must interact and communicate with each other o Similar to the General Systems Theory 10 Three Family Subsystems - The spousal (marital) subsystem o Marriage partners - The parental subsystem o Responsible for the care, protection, socialization, support, etc for the child in the family o Usually the same partners in the marital system (not always) - The Sibling subsystem o Siblings o Children in the family system that the parents take care of The Spousal Subsystem - What communication behaviors express and promote closeness and intimacy among spouses - Self-disclosure o Sharing information with each other  Quantity and quality o The closer you are the more likely you will self-disclose - Verbal expressions of closeness and support o “I love you” “I care about you” “You can do it” - Nonverbal and physical expression of intimacy and affection o Holding hands, smiling at each other, sexually relations, hugging, etc. o Reflects that you care - Rituals (material evidence for love (e.g., giving gifts); nonmaterial evidence for love) o Material evidence: Exchanging rings o Nonmaterial evidence: Spending time with each other What characterizes the communication of distressed vs. non-distressed couples? Gottman’s behavioral Cascade Model of marital Dissolutions (The Four Horsemen of Apocalypase) - Gottman found that four communication patterns among spouses predict whether a couple will get divorced with 94% accuracy - The four horsemen (four communication behaviors in a couple’s interaction) o Complaint/Criticize  Bring up issues and problems by blaming the other spouse  Words that they use: You, never, always  “You always do that!”  “You never help me!” o Defensiveness  Denying responsibility and any wrong doing  “I never do that!” o Contempt  Mocking and insulting each other  Shows a lack of love and respect o Stonewalling  One spouse shuts down and avoids interaction  Shows that the spouse doesn’t care in the relationship o Let’s see how this looks like (Video)  Pay attention to what is said and how it’s said 11 Parental Subsystem - Refers to parent child communication - Two major parenting dimensions: Parental responsiveness (warmth) and parental demandingness (control) o These two dimensions can have an effect on the child emotional, social, scholarly, psychologically - The ways parents deliver behaviors that communicate responsiveness and demandingness affect child outcome o Very responsive but not very demanding parenting can change the child’s thoughts on what is appropriate in different settings - Parental responsiveness o Nonverbal expressions  Gaze, touch o Active listening o Reflecting  “I see you are angry” - Parental demandingness and control o Love withdrawal  When parents express the lack of love due to something the child is done o Parental intrusiveness  Over protectiveness, over involvement  Parent does things for the child and the child learns to be too dependent on their parent o Directive declarative statements  Parental commands  “Stop crying” “Go to your room” What parental communication behaviors are related to demandingness (power, in this case) can we identify here? - Tangled - “Mother knows best” o Rewards: If you stay I can take care of you o Punishments: “don’t forget it, you’ll regret it” o Guilt induction o Legitimate power (the role)  I know best, mother knows best  Uses her role as a mother o Parental power is communicated through interaction o Parental intrusiveness  “Mother will protect you”-over protectiveness o Love withdrawal  Hides from Rapunzel and makes her scared o Directive declarative statements  “Don’t ever ask to leave this tower again” To sum - To sum, family relationships are reflected in and dynamically shaped by the communication among family members 12 - Communication of closeness/responsiveness and communication of conflict/demandingness promotes relational and individual outcomes Communication 101 Spring 2013 Small Group Communication 4.18.13 What is a Group? - A group is composed of individuals with varying motivations, emotions, perspectives, and needs who come together to negotiate a framework for communication that permits collective action o Collective action: to do something together - A group is made up of people who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by other members o Mutual influence is important because there is a goal that they need to achieve together, so things that they do, or don’t do, has an effect on everyone and the goal that they must achieve - Groups have an interdependent goal o All members succeed or fail together in the accomplishment of the group’s purpose - The ideal size of a group is the minimum number of people needed to accomplish a task Types of Groups - Task o Productivity oriented o Main focus is completing a task  Group assignment - Social o Socially oriented; morale & encouragement  Primary groups  Exist to satisfy the need for solitary, support, love, the need to be a part of a group o Family/friends  Activity groups  Enable the members to participate in activities together o For the sake of the activity and for the feeling of affiliation o Sports team or a girls night out (were the friends come together for the sake of doing an activity)  Personal growth groups  People come together to grow personal insights and help each other  Don’t necessarily know each other but have something in common o AA groups o Main focus is relationships - Emergent o Groups develop spontaneously o Naturally emergent through communication  A group of childhood friends  They were not placed in that groups but eventually became friends - Groups usually encompass aspects of all the above groups Group Networking 13 - Networking o The communicative patterns a group develops and is active through - Circle Network o Each member communicates with some other members, not ALL members  Not a constant flow of communication with each one in a group but one person communicates with another then that person communicates to another and that person may go back to the first person (like a circle)  Ex: gossiping in a group - Wheel Network o A “star” member connects all the members  Everyone communicates through one person  Everyone speaks to one person and that one person is the only one that communicates with everyone - Chain Network o A linear form of communication (hierarchy)  Someone who has the highest authority communicates with someone in a lower status and it continues down the hierarchy chain - All-Channel Network o All group members can communicate with all other members  Equal and everyone communicates with the whole group with however much involvement that they choose Group Dynamics - Members of a group communicate to achieve (a) goal(s) (decision making process) - Groups are subject to biases
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