study guide for comm exam 2.docx

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Communication and Information
Xi Wang

---What is the definition of the verbal code? Emblems easily transfer to verbal code;Example: Thumbs up or Thumbs down ---In what ways is language a symbol system? Semantic codes indicate that words have both denotative and connotative meaning, word meanings vary by time and place, and words are only symbolic representations of reality;Syntactic codes establish conventions or rules that guide our use of words, even if we can’t express those rules.;Pragmatic codes describe what is appropriate in a given context. ---What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis? Is it widely accepted and why? “The real world is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group.” Men and female use languages for different reasons The determinist believes language determines reality because it conditions us to process experience in a certain way;The relativist believes language influences, but does not determine, thought and meaning; The nonbeliever does not believe language influences thought, citing translatability between languages and universals (such as grammatical structures common to all languages) to support their position.---What is the significance of the triangle of meaning? (thought on top of triangle. Word on left bottom and Thing on right bottom.. dotted line from Word TO Thing.. Others are solid lines.) The broken line emphasizes that there is no direct connection between words and things. Meaning exists in thoughts only. --How can one determine if language is offensive/politically correct? Euphemisms are words used in place of terms that some people might find offensive. Emotive language conveys an opinion or attitude about a subject.“Politically correct language” means different things to different people. ---What is the difference between denotative versus connotative meanings of words? Denotative meaning refers to a word’s dictionary definitions. Words have a limited number of denotative meanings.Connotative meaning is subjective. Words can have a virtually limitless number of connotative meanings (as many meanings as there are people who use them) ---What is the definition and components of non-verbal communication ? “…all intentional and unintentional messages that are not written, spoken, or sounded.” Technical Level —rules are openly known & stated. Formal Level—rules known; reasons not known. Informal Level—neither rules nor reasons known; behaviors unconsciously learned. Components? Facial expressions & eye contact;; Body movements & gestures-kineics/haptics; Clothing & personal appearance; Distance & personal space-proxemic; Physical environment; Time -chronemics---What is the importance of the non-verbal code in the way(s) we process information? Eye contact- Shows interest and attentiveness,Signals wish to participate, Controls & persuades others; Movements & gestures- Emblems, Illustrators- reinforces a verbal message,Regulators- nonverbal que that controls the flow of conversation,Adaptors- nonverbal que that indicates mental state. Example: nervous. Clothing and Appearance- Determines credibility, persuasiveness, status & hiring decisions, Affects public perception, Is problematic (i.e., Casual Confusion Syndrome; Distance & Personal Space- Intimate distance: contact - 18 inches,Personal distance: 18 inches - 4 feet,Social distance: 4 - 12 feet, Public Distance-12 feet or more.---What are the effects of non-verbal communication in the way(s) through which messages are disseminated in today’s world? International cultures often use unexpected nonverbal symbols and meanings. Inadequate training given to expatriates:--65% companies provide no trainin--40% return home before scheduled time: Result: Culture shock!----What is the definition of theory in the context of communication research? Personal theories- based on experience;Scholarly Theories- based on research---What is the definition of a model in the context of communication research? Aspeaker discovers Ethos- the nature of the source..credibility of the source,Pathos- emotional connection, Logos-logic; Arranges those proofs; Clothes/Styles those ideas in compelling words; Delivers the product appropriately---Can you identify the main communication models, their evolution and their significance? : Schramm-Osgood (1954).^^ Thayer (1968) DeVito (2003)..senderàmessageàreciever= EFFECTKey terms in research:-hypothesis -data-data analysis -theory/model -research paradigm = what kind of data you collect Clusters: Interpersonal, Organizational, Mass Media, Communication & Information Technology,Health,Language,Culture,Public Relations Levels:Micro,Meso,Macro ---What is the definition of interpersonal communication and its key variables? Interpersonal Communication: when two or more individuals mutually take account of and adjust to one another’s verbal or nonverbal behavior. KEY VARIABLES Self-concept = subjective, multifaceted, more or less visible, and dynamic;Conversations Uncertainty = anxiety;Non-verbal communication includes proxemics, haptics, immediacy (perceived closeness);Listening and hearing;Trust, ethics;Power (workplace, parent, friend);Conflict = avoider? How do you handle conflict? ---What is the Johari window and its significance? ---What are the different communication styles and how are they determined? Open = Discloses and seeks feedback;Closed = Rarely discloses or seeks feedback;Blind = Dominates conversation;Hidden = Listens but rarely shares ---What are the main characteristics of relationships and their significance? Mutual awareness; Develop through coordinated interaction;Analyzed and evaluated as they develop;influenced by outside forces;Enabling and limiting; Constructed and maintained through communication ---What do we mean by relationship ‘negotiation’?Ability to negotiate relational stages determines relationship development;Relationship definitions are negotiated through communication; Compromise, communicate, pick your battles. ---What are the components and significance of the Knapp and Vangelisti (also referred to as Knapp) mode of relationship development? relational communication: Every message has a content and relational component.;The content component refers to the semantic or conventional meaning;The relational component refers to the implications of the message for the relationship. ---What are the elements of the social penetration model of relationships? ---What is the ‘onion model’in an interpersonal communication context? ---What is the cost-benefit analysis in a relationship context? Social Penetration=The process of bonding that moves a relationship from superficial to more intimate; Social Depenetration=The slow deterioration of a close relationship;We accomplish social penetration through self-disclosure – the purposeful process of revealing information about one’s self. ONION MODEL:Breadth of topics and depth of topic discussion. Orientation– reveal only bits of ourselves at the public level, reflects superficial aspects of individuals act in socially desirable ways, polite and cliché (norms);ExploratoryAffective: personality begins to emerge. What was once private becomes public.Casual acquaintances and friends;Affective Exchange: characterize close friendships and intimate partners, casual and spontaneous.Reflects further commitment and a level of comfort.Personal idioms: private ways of expressing a relationships intimacy through words, phrases, behaviors Criticisms;Stable Exchange: Raw honesty and intimacy, open expression of thoughts, feelings, and behavior.High degree of spontaneity and relational uniqueness, personal system of communication. ---What are the different types of power in communication? Can you identify examples of each in a relationship context? Reward – ability to reward behavior, promotion;Coercive – Opposite of reward, punish or prevent from obtaining a desirable reward;Legitimate –Assigned position, manager; Expert – Valued knowledge, may allow or incorporate legitimate;Referent – people admire someone, loyalty, emulation, charismatic and agents of change (inspire);Persuasive – ability to convince others to take action, common in public speeches. ---What are the different types of conflict in relationships? Can we avoid conflict? ---What are emotions and how do they affect the way we communicate? Conflict- The interpersonal process that occurs whenever the actions of one person interfere w
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