Study Guides (390,000)
US (220,000)
Rutgers (3,000)
7:12 (100)
Study Guide

04:192:300 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Nomothetic, Longitudinal Study, Occam'S Razor


Department
Communication
Course Code
04:192:300
Professor
Vikki Katz
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 53 pages of the document.
04:192:300

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Ways of Knowing
How do we come to โ€œknowโ€?
โ— Mostly through agreement and belief--not personal experience or discovery
โ—Personal experience๎€ & ๎€indirect sources
โ— We learn about ๎€probability๎€, and ๎€cause & effect๎€ (ex. toddler behavior)
โ—‹We desire predictability๎€ - but can we understand the results?
โ–  Investments of time vs. lucky streaks?
โ— โ€œOne in two marriages ends in divorceโ€ - ๎€really
๎€
?
โ— Is drinking during pregnancy dangerous?
โ—Tradition๎€ - โ€œWhy? Because itโ€™s always been this way.โ€
โ—‹ Drawbacks
โ–  Little incentive to look for better ways to do or learn things
โ–  Resistance to new ideas
โ—Authority๎€ - People or systems we accord credibility
โ—‹ Diminished trust in traditional authorities
โ—‹ Diminished trust in mass media, in an increasingly fragmented media landscape
โ—Overgeneralizing๎€ - My one experience proves thatโ€ฆ
โ—Inaccurate & selective observations๎€ - Reinforcing what we already know or are primed
to see
โ— Problems with non-scientific beliefs
โ—‹ Based on limited knowledge
โ—‹Intuitive thinking๎€; it just makes sense(?)
โ—‹ Drive to avoid ๎€cognitive dissonance
โ—‹ Times and conditions may change--so thinking has to be ๎€self-correcting
So, what is โ€œrealโ€?
โ— We live in a state of ๎€naive realism๎€ most of the time
โ—Perspective๎€ - What is ๎€universal๎€ and what is ๎€relative๎€ in human experience? (ex.
reasons for a bald head)
Epistemology๎€ - science of knowing; systems of knowledge
Methodology๎€ - science of finding out; procedures for scientific investigation
Agreement Reality๎€ - those things we โ€œknowโ€ as part and parcel of the culture we share with
those around us
Replication๎€ - repeating a research study to test and either confirm or question the findings of an
earlier study
Theory๎€ - systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life;
juvenile delinquency, for example, or perhaps social stratification or political revolution
Variables๎€ - logical sets of attributes; the variable ๎€sex
๎€
is made of up of the attributes ๎€male
๎€
and
female
Attributes๎€ - characteristics of people or things
Independent Variable๎€ - a variable with values that are not problematic in an analysis but are
taken as simply given; presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Dependent Variable๎€ - a variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another (the
independent variable); if you find that ๎€income
๎€
is partly a function of the ๎€amount of formal
education
๎€
, ๎€income
๎€
is being treated as dependent variable
Idiographic๎€ - an approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes
of a particular condition or event (Imagine trying to list all the reasons why you chose to attend
your particular college. Given all those reasons, itโ€™s difficult to imagine your making any other
choice.)
Nomothetic๎€ - an approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that
generally impact a class of conditions or events (imagine the two or three key factors that
determine which colleges students choose--proximity, reputation, and so forth)
Induction๎€ - logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations
(having noted that Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote Democratic than Protestants are,
you might conclude that religious minorities in the U.S. are more affiliated with the Democratic
party and then your task is to explain why)
Deduction๎€ - logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the
basis of general principles (Starting from the general principle that all deans are meanies, you
might anticipate that this one wonโ€™t let you change courses. This anticipation would be the result
of deduction.)
Tolerance for Ambiguity๎€ - ability to hold conflicting ideas in your mind simultaneously, without
denying or dismissing any of them
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version