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01:198:110 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Cpu Cache, Central Processing Unit, Random-Access MemoryPremium


Department
Computer Science
Course Code
01:198:110
Professor
Alan Belowich
Study Guide
Midterm

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Rutgers University
01:198:110
Introduction to Computers and Their Application
Midterm Test
Fall 2018
Prof. Alan Belowich

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Comp 9/11
Main Computer Hardware
Cpu - central processing unit (‘brains of the computer’)
Ram - primary computer memory
Storage (devices)
Peripherals - input/output devices (mouse/keyboard/anything you plug into it)
Modern Digital Computers
More transistors
Physically smaller
Price goes down as computers get older (couple years reduces value/price drastically)
Brainstorming
Faster
More memory
Moore’s law - capacity doubles every 18 months (more power/faster/better)
Types of Computers
General Purpose - can run multiple programs (supercomputers, mainframe computers,
desktops, laptops)
Special Purpose - runs only one program, designed to perform a specific function/task;
instructions imbedded in computer (home appliances, cars, atm, traffic control)
What do computers do?
IPOS
1 Accept Input (data)
2 Process data
3 Provide Output (information)
4 Store information
(DATA: 7326090972; Info: (732) 609-0972 - user friendly/organized)
CPU
Central processing unit, processor, chip
Control units
FETCH instructions from memory
DECODE the instructions
EXECUTE the instructions
STORE results
(that was the machine cycle, preformed billion times a second)
ALU (arithmetic/logic unit) -
Performs the mathematical calculations and logical comparisons
transforms/transfers information when needed
Cpu speed, known as CLOCK SPEED, is measured in Hz or HERTZ, which means cycles per
second - measured in GHz (billions of cycles per second)
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3.2 GHz= 3.2 billion cycles per second
Pipelining - assembly line where multiple things are happen at once/at different stages (ex:
Laundry - four loads and only one set of machines/one is washing one is drying one is
being folded all at the same time/happens faster/different stages (cuts time in
half/happens faster))
How to speed up cpu - overclocking, make cpu faster than standard (change voltage),
unfortunately increases heat/makes it work harder, possible damage (overworking a
horse/collapses in middle of race)
Multi-core? Cpu faster, makes the cpu seem like multiple processors
Is a computer with a 3.2 GHz procesor always faster than one with 2.8 GHz processor?
NO, other factors include
Different manufacturers
Amount/speed of RAM
Cpu design
Amount of cache memory (not upgradable/part of computer chip, stores most frequently
used processes; very fast/very desirable (more expensive/less space than ram,
works in combination with RAM)
Bus type/speed (wires/pathways in computer, the wider the path the more can get
through at once)
Speed of hard drive
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