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[05:300:306] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (127 pages long!)


Department
Education
Course Code
05:300:306
Professor
O' D O N N E L L
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
05:300:306
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: DEVELOPING LEARNERS
Chapter 1: Teaching and Educational Psychology
Two objectives:
1. Gain knowledge about learners and how they learn.
2. Enhance understanding of the teaching-learning situation and capacity to help others
learn
Critical Thinking and Reflective Teaching
-The process:
-Telling fact from opinion
-Seeing holes in an argument
-To spot illogic
-To evaluate evidence
-Telling whether or not cause and effect have been established
Educational Psychology as a SCIENTIFIC field of study
Educational psychology: the scientific study of psychology education
-two-fold mission: Enhance theoretical knowledge and improve educational practice.
-apply scientifically-based research methods to collect data.
A Focus on Learning
Learning: a relatively permanent change in knowledge, skill, or behavior or knowledge as a
result of experience.
-Depends on many factors:
-the quality of instruction
-student motivation
-student engagement
-student’s developmental readiness to learn
Teaching as Evidence-Based practice
-Instructional methods based on research
-Applying educational psychology
-nature of learning
-motivating students to learn
-assessment of student progress
-general developmental trends
-individual diversity
Understanding and Interpreting Research Findings
-Research can be classified as:
Quantitative: numerical data
-test scores
-attendance records
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-rating scales
Qualitative: non-numerical data
-interview responses
-observations
-case studies
Quantitative Studies
1. Descriptive
-information about a population or situation
-”the way things are”
Research Questions: “What kinds of aggressive behaviors occur in schools, and with what
frequencies?
A search method used to describe the educational situation as it naturally occurs- what typically
happens, how teachers teach, and how students learn and develop (Ex: What are the most
common strategies teachers use to motivate and engage their students?)
2. Correlational
-associations among variables
-”what things occur together”
-used for prediction
Research Questions: “Are students more likely to be aggressive at school if they often see
violence at home or in their neighborhoods?”
A research method used to measure two naturally occurring variables and summarize the
nature and magnitude of their relationship in numerical form (Ex: is there a meaningful relation
between students’ socioeconomic status and their school achievement?)
3. Experimental
-”why things are”-causal links
-manipulation of environment to test outcomes
Research Questions: “Which method is most effective in reducing aggressive behavior-
rewarding appropriate behavior, punishing aggressive behavior, or a combination of both?”
A research method used to test for a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables (Ex:
Does exposure to violent videogames cause an increase in adolescents’ peer aggression?)
4. Quasi-experimental
-not all influential factors can be controlled
-alternative explanations must be considered
Research Methods
-research methods provide the means to test, evaluate and revise theories.
-Descriptive studies
-Correlational Studies
-Experimental Studies
-Action Research
Action Research
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