01:510:261 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - History Of The United States Republican Party, Supreme Court Of The United States, Black People

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01:510:261
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Chapter 01 - A New World
1. First Americans
1. Arrival of Native Americans
1. Gradual settlement across Americas
2. Environmental change and rise of agriculture
2. Aztec and Inca empires
3. North American Indians
1. Wide-ranging and evolving societies
1. Mississippi Valley
2. Ohio River Valley
3. Southwest
4. West Coast
5. Great Plains
6. Southeast
7. Northeast
2. Interrelations among Indian societies
1. Trade
2. Diplomacy
3. War
3. Distinguishing factors among Indian societies
1. Political organization
2. Religious beliefs
3. Language
4. Absence of shared identity
4. Common characteristics among Indian societies
1. Spiritual outlook
1. Place of ritual
2. Views on natural and supernatural
3. Views on secular and religious
2. Conceptions of property
3. Relative lack of material inequality
4. Systems of gender relations
5. European disdain for Indian customs and values
2. Indian Freedom, European Freedom
1. Indian conceptions of freedom
1. Basis in collective belonging, self-determination, mutuality
2. Absence of basis in individual autonomy, private property
3. European incomprehension of
2. European conceptions of freedom
1. Christian liberty
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1. Freedom from sin
2. No freedom of religious choice
2. Freedom and inequality in early modern England
1. Emphasis on ordered, hierarchical society
1. Gender hierarchies
2. Class hierarchies
2. Unequal distribution of freedoms
3. Start of European expansion
1. Initial aims
1. Commercial sea route to Asia
2. Circumvention of Islamic middlemen
2. Eastward expansion
1. Portugal's exploration, extension of trading empire
1. West Africa
2. Cape of Good Hope
3. India
4. Far East
2. Portugal's colonization of Atlantic islands
1. Sugar plantations
2. Slaves from Africa
3. Slavery and Africa
1. Traditional patterns of African slavery
2. Acceleration of slave trade following European arrival
4. Westward expansion
1. Voyages of Christopher Columbus
1. Quest for westward route to Asia
2. Sponsorship of Spain
2. First Spanish presence in New World
1. Settlements at Hispaniola
2. Explorations by Amerigo Vespucci
3. First English and Portuguese presence in New World
1. John Cabot (Newfoundland)
2. Pedro Cabral (Brazil)
4. Spanish conquest of New World
1. Motivations
1. Acquisition of wealth
2. National glory
3. Spread of Catholicism
2. The Conquistadores
1. Vasco Núñez de Balboa's expedition to Panama, the Pacific
2. Ferdinand Magellan's expedition around the world
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