01:506:201 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Europe 1, Christianity, Agriculture

56 views331 pages
01:506:201
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 331 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 331 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Chapter 1 From Human Prehistory to the Early Civilizations
1. Introduction
1. Human origin 2.5 million years ago
1. 1/4000 of earth’s existence 24 hour day last 5 minutes
2. Human negatives and positives
1. Aggressiveness, long baby time, back problems, death
fears
2. Grip, high/regular sex drive, omnivores, facial expressions,
speech
3. Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age
4. 5 million to 12000 BCE
1. Simple tools increase in size, brain capacity Homo
erectus
2. Late Paleolithic Developments
1. Homo sapiens sapiens 120,000 years ago killed off others?
1. Population growth required change 1 square mile to
hunt/gather for 2 people
1. Long breast feeding limit fertility
2. Relative gender equality women harder, but both
contributed
2. Rituals for death, explain environment, rules for social
behavior
3. Greatest achievement spread over earth
1. Fire/animal skin
2. 14,000 Great ice age ended
4. Tools sharpen animal bones, rafts
5. Domesticated animals
6. Conflicts w/ others bone breaks/skull fractures
2. Knowledge based on cave paintings, tool remains, burial sites
3. Neolithic (New Stone) Age Revolution
1. Agriculture changed everything could support more people
1. Settle one spot focus on economic, political, religious
goals
2. 14,000-10,000 BCE 6 million to 100 million people
2. Causes of Agriculture
1. Population increase better climate
2. Big game animals decreasing hunting yield declined
3. Gradual change harvesting wild grains to planting seeds
3. New animals domesticated pigs, sheep, goats, cattle
1. Meat, skins, dairy
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 331 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2. Advantage to Europe?
4. Why Middle East?
1. Water source, fertile area, not forested, lacked animals
5. Revolution” gradual many combined changes w/ hunting
gathering 1000 years
6. Effects
1. Longer work week labor intensive
2. Build houses, villages
3. Varied clothing
7. Resistance too complicated, boring, difficult
1. Disease those in villages developed immunity nomads
died off/joined
2. Some isolated societies still avoid
1. Harsh climate, no exchange of knowledge
2. Tough, nomadic invaders
3. Nomads not that influential accept for interaction
8. Changes
1. Specialization
2. Technology control of nature storage facilities, pottery
3. Metal tools Bronze Age 3000 Iron Age 1500 BCE
4. Civilization
1. Hunter/gatherer no bigger than 60 food runs out
1. Other options slash and burn
2. Tribal bands strong kinship relatively small
2. Benefits of settling
1. Houses, wells, improvements used by future, irrigation
2. Irrigation/defense required work together organization
from above
3. Catal Huyuk Turkey 7000 BCE civilization studied
1. Rooftop activity broken bones
2. Religious responsibilities/fertility gods images
3. Trade w/others for peace
4. Definition societies economic surplus > division of labor/social
hierarchy
1. Formal political organizations no relation to family unit
2. City benefits wealth, exchange of ideas, artistic/intellectual
expression, manufacturing/trade specialization
5. Writing
1. First - Cuneiform wedge shaped Middle East
2. Tax efficiently
3. Contracts/treaties
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 331 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.