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01:447:380- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 84 pages long!)


Department
Genetic
Course Code
01:447:380
Professor
D.Glodowski
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:447:380
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1: Principle of Segregation
I. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884):
A. The “father of genetics”; Studied the inheritance of characters in the garden pea
B. Published his work in 1866-- importance not recognized until ~1900 when it was
rediscovered
C. Before his work, theory of Blending Inheritance was popular
1. Sperm and egg containing sampling of essences from throughout the
body (pangenesis - each individual has gametes that contain abstract
essences that give rise to physical features seen)
2. Essences blend at conception to form new pattern for new individual
D. Mendel’s model organism: the garden pea
Advantages
Keys to Mendel’s Success
● Cheap, easy to obtain
● Easy to grow
Self-fertilizing
● Can be cross pollinated
● Used true-breeding strains
● Studied contrasting
characteristics
● Quantifies experimental results
II. Terminology
A. Gene vs Allele vs locus vs chromosome
1. Gene: fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity that carries
information from one generation to the next; allows progeny to inherit
certain traits; determines particular characteristic of an organism; codes
for a specific protein or RNA
2. Allele: form of a gene that exists at a single locus, like green (Y) vs yellow
(y)
3. Locus: place on chromosome where a gene is located
4. Chromosome:large genetic element that carries genes, composed of
chromatin (DNA and protein), visible under a light microscope during
mitosis; functions to package, organize, regular access to DNA
B. Genotype vs phenotype
1. Genotype: underlying genetic composition of an organism
2. Phenotype: appearance of characteristics of an organism
C. Dominant vs recessive
1. Dominant: seen in F1: phenotype observed in heterozygote
2. Recessive: not seen in F1: allele is hidden in heterozygote
D. Homozygous vs heterozygous
1. Homozygous: 2 identical alleles
2. Heterozygous: 2 different alleles
III. Experiments
A. Monohybrid Cross
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1. Mono = one ; Hybrid = individual
formed from 2 true-breeding parents
of different genotypes
2. F1 resembled 1 parent only
3. Results of Reciprocal Cross were the
same
a) it doesn’t matter which parent
(gamete) is carrying the trait
b) Always saw 3:1 ratio in F2
generation
4. Conclusions
a) Male and female parents contribute equally reciprocal crosses
with same results
b) Inheritance is not blended F1 progeny always resembled one
parent only
5. Propositions
a) Dominant vs Recessive traits
(1) Dominant trait is displayed in F1 gen
(2) Recessive trait is displayed only in F2 gen
b) Theory of Particulate Inheritance
(1) Traits are determined by discrete units that are inherited
intact through generations
(2) Each individual has 2 particles in genotype, but passes
only 1 particle on to progeny
B. If Mendel’s Two Particle Theory of Inheritance were true, we predict...
1. All yellow F2 plants (hom.) will
breed true
2. Some green F2 plants (hom.) will
breed true
3. Some green F2 plants (het.) will
produce green & yellow
C. Mendel’s First Law is the Principle of Segregation
1. During gamete formation, members of a pair of alleles segregate into
separate gametes
2. Such gametes form in equal frequencies
3. Subsequent fertilization is random
4. If parent is diploid (has 2 allele for all genes)
a) Phenotypic ratio will be 3:1 in F2
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