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01:447:380 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Rna, Gene, Protein


Department
Genetic
Course Code
01:447:380
Professor
R Michaelis
Study Guide
Final

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01:447:380

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Genetics:
Lecture #1: The Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Chromatin and Chromosomes
Genetics is what’s happening to the protein when things go wrong in body
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
Types of DNAS
o Chromosomal DNA in the nucleus
o Mitochondrial DNA: We have
o Chloroplast DNA: Plants have
o Bacterial DNA (chromosomes and plasmids)
o Viral DNA
Types of RNAs
o Main 3
1. Messenger RNA--translated into polypeptides
2. Ribosomal RNA--integral part of ribosome
3. Transfer RNA--carry amino acids in for polypeptide synthesis
o Others
1. Small nuclear RNAs help process pre-mRNAs into mRNAs
2. Small nucleolar RNAs help process and assemble ribosomal RNAs
3. RibozymesCan function like enzyme proteins
a. ex. Cleave RNAs, assemble polymer (rRNA)
4. Antisense RNAs
a. Some interfere with protein production, ex. microRNAs (miRNA),
small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), interfering RNAs
b. Some enable protein production
c. Antisense refers to the requirement that two nucleic acids need to
complement one another to bind
i. Antisense means: Rely Complementary and anti-parallel to
something else
ii. This is how RNA works
5. Piwi-interacting RNAs
a. Suppress transcription of transposons in testes, interact with the Piwi
protein (P-element Induced WImpy testis in Drosophila)
6. CRISPR RNAs
a. help bacteria and archaea destroy invading viruses and plasmids
7. Long Noncoding RNAs
a. RNA that doesn’t go on to make a protein
b. Some act as molecular decoys, and bind up proteins that would
otherwise destabilize chromosomes
c. Others cause changes in the structure of chromosomes, inhibiting
gene expression
o Only 1-2% of the human genome encodes proteins; 80% of the human genome is
transcribed
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Go over the process of RNA formation
Small chaperones to help molecular process run; without these biological processes
wont run
1. DNA Is the Molecule of Inheritance
o What are the requirements for the molecule of inheritance?
What molecules were possible candidates?
DNA, protein, and RNA
RNA got thrown out right away because it focuses was chromosomes
(chromosomes made of proteins and DNA)
Some people thought protein: Knew molecule had to be able to
produce diversity (many versions of)
o 20 amino acids
o Only 4 nucleotides
DNA has more diversity because codons
o 3 nucleotides sequence (64 sequences total)
o The molecules of inheritance must
1. Contain the information that determines all the traits & functions of the
organism
2. Be stable in general, but also have the ability to change in some ways
without causing harm to the organism
3. Be carried on chromosomes--The chromosomal theory of inheritance
(put forth by Walter Sutton in 1902, confirmed by independent work by
Theodor Boveri around the same time) was widely accepted by then
4. The theory postulated that organisms possessed matched pairs of
maternal and paternal chromosomes that separated from each other
during meiosis and "may constitute the physical basis of the Mendelian
law of heredity (Sutton 1902)"
Go over the anatomy of chromosomes
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