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01:460:202 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Groundwater, New Jersey, Methane


Department
Geological Sciences
Course Code
01:460:202
Professor
Sugarman
Study Guide
Midterm

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01:460:202
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Geology and Environment
Rachel Carson and her role in the environmental movement
o Silent Spring (1962)
Tale about widespread pesticide poisoning; focused on effects of DDT on
bird shells
Elicited public outcry for direct government action to protect nature
the pesticide DDT was banned in 1972
o Helped launch Environmental Policy- governments should not only preserve
Earth, but regulate and punish those who pollute it
The role of the USEPA including the Clean Air Act
o Established December 2, 1970
o Creation and enforcement of environmental protection standards consistent
with national environmental goals
o Clean Air Act (1972)- legislation authorized development of comprehensive
federal and state regulations to limit emissions from both industrial and mobile
sources
Prevented over 220,000 deaths from air pollution
The definition and goals of environmental geology
o Environmental Geology
Interactions of humans and geological environment
Human effect on environment (i.e. pollution)
Effects of environment on humans (i.e. earthquakes)
Scientific studies of future based on our knowledge of the past and
present
These statements about the future, commonly called forecasts
and predictions, lie at the core of environmental geology
Goals:
Decrease environmental threats to humans (i.e. earthquake
prediction)
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Aid in minimizing adverse effects on ecosystems (i.e. floodplain
control)
Provide scientific foundation for decision makers (i.e. climate
models)
The Aral Sea case study
o Aral Sea was the 4th largest lake in the world, but was shrinking due to stream
diversions
Cause: two inflowing rivers diverted to irrigate cotton and rice fields
Loss of lake caused local climate change:
Drier, hotter summers
Colder, longer winters
Frequent dust storms dumping salt and dust on agricultural fields,
poisoning soil and killing crops
Loss of fishing and tourism industry
Solution: irrigation halted and canals drain waterlogged fields into sea
o Slowly improving
The effects of human population growth on environmental issues
o Greater population
Needs more resources like soil, water, energy
Creates additional waste
o US Census Bureau estimates that by 2050, number of people on Earth 9.5
billion (40% more than 2010)
o David Owen, Green Metropolis Thesis (2009):
Cities are greener than suburbs because larger percentage of population
walk, bike, uses mass transit; share infrastructure; live in smaller spaces
with smaller energy demands for heating and cooling; no sprawl; less
commuting
The definition and implications of sustainability
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