Unit 1 Study Guide.docx

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History, American
Thomas Prusa

What factors helped to bring about the Age of Exploration? 1. The Crusades: an attempt by the Catholic countries of Europe to reconquer the holy land (Middle East) from Muslim societies a. Began in 1095 C.E. b. The only successful crusade was the first one c. Crusades reopened trade routes to Asia 2. The Black Plague (Bubonic Plague) a. Began in 1347 C.E. b. Killed 1/3 of the population i. Food became more plentiful ii. Less people=survivors get wealthier (inheritances) iii. Forced people to make up for lack of manpower by innovating 3. Technological Advances & The Renaissance (French for “rebirth”) a. The Printing Press (Gutenberg) b. Caravel Ship (lateen sails) c. Navigation Technology (compass, astrolabe, portulanos) 4. Centralized Nation-States Formed i. Spain, Portugal ii. Majority of people share a common culture, loyalty to central government iii. Powerful iv. Have the ability to raise money to finance expeditions 5. Expanding Trade a. Marco Polo brought back Asian goods b. Trade was over-land routes c. Italian cities controlled routes 6. Competition for Wealth a. Finance armies, kill neighbors, get more money (not rich=taken over) b. Muslim societies that controlled the land routes to Asia began to tax the routes or close them altogether i. People began to look for a sea route Paragraph 1: Opening Paragraph 2: The Crusades Paragraph 3: The Black Plague Paragraph 4: Technological Advances & The Rena
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