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07:700:131 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Baroque Music, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Lute


Department
Music
Course Code
07:700:131
Professor
Minah Choi
Study Guide
Final

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07:700:131

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1/22 Notes part 2
Sound and its production
Sound is vibration
Requires an object to be set in motion by energy
Sound reaches us through a medium, such as air, and is
disturbed, which in this case would be sound waves
Then the waves are made up of changes in pressure which
is received by our ears, causing our ears to vibrate
The vibrations convert into impulses that are sent to the
brain where they are interpreted and organized
3 components to sound
Energy
Vibrating element
Energy and vibrating element must have a resonating chamber to
convert the vibrations to sound
Resonating chambers - an enclosed space where air is disturbed by a
vibrating element
Function: to shape the dimension of the soundwave that’s
produced by the vibration and to amplify it
Size and materials all have an impact on pitch range of an
instrument or a voice; shape can have an impact as well
Guitars, harps, violin, and drums have resonating chambers
locating in wooden boxes
Woodwind instruments have tubes as their resonating chamber
Brass instruments use pipes
4 properties of sound
Pitch
Is the high or low of sound, which is determined by frequency of
vibration
Faster the vibration → higher the pitch
Interval - distance between pitches
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Octave is the most important interval !!
Dynamics
The loudness or softness of a pitch
It’s a function of amplitude (vertical dimension of a soundwave)
Amplitude vs volume
Amplitude is measured in decibels
Volume just measures “how many” decibels
Crescendo - gradually louder
Decrescendo - gradually softer
Timbre
Describes the quality of sound that’s produced
The human ear only catches the loudest, which is the lowest, note
in a pitch.
Lowest note is known as the fundamental
Important bc it allows us to identify the speaker
Also provides as a source of variance in music
Duration
Duration of a pitch is determined by:
The Amount of energy invested in the vibration
The resonating chamber
How the energy is delivered
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