•Christianity became the dominant organizing force of people’s lives in Western Europe
•Reading the Pagan philosophy in the West was considered unfashionable (writings of
Plato and Aristotle were hidden in the Arab culture)
•Aquinas is very much part of Christian world, is a Saint. An important exponent of
Scholasticism (way of debate and way of addressing philosophical questions)
•Scholasticism would last throughout Middle Ages, to Renaissance (abandoned
outside of the Catholic Church).
•Tradition was centered in the monasteries.
•Canon law, law of the Catholic Church, much of it is going to be about Aquinas.
•Concerned between law and justice, the relationship between life and binding order,
primary concerns of Locke.
•For Aquinas, there is a great chain of being that links together humans to God and the
universe. His great chain of being is watched by the natural order of law.
•How does Aquinas deﬁne law?
•Law is a certain ordinance of reason for the common good, made by him who has
care of the community, and promulgated.
4 Types of Law
•Eternal law: known only to God
•Reﬂects rational ordering of the universe.
•Natural law: A reﬂection of the eternal law
•Tells us to seek God. Do human beings have natural inclination to seek God? Do
they need to look towards a higher power?
•To learn truth, to be honest, to not uncreate arguments that are clearly wrong and
turn us away from the truth. We should not try to deny the world the way it actually
is, and not trick people by being intellectually dishonest.
•Related to human ﬂourishing
•Positive law (Human law)
•The law that we use to govern ourselves.