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Study Guide Exam 1 for Infant and Child

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Margaret Ingate

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Chapter 1 Nature- our biological endowment; genes we receive from our parents Nurture-physical and social environment that influence our development, including the womb during the prenatal period Continuous development- growth is stable Discontinuous development- sudden changes (ex: caterpillar  cocoon  butterfly) Stage theories- development occurs in a progression of distinct age-related stages; a child’s entry into a new stage involves sudden changes that affect the child’s thinking Test-retest reliability- measures of a child’s performance on the same test under the same conditions are similar on two or more occasions Validity- the degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure Internal validity- refers to whether effects observed within experiments can be attributed with confidence to the conditions that the researcher is testing Structured interview- self reports on the same topics from everyone being studied Clinical interview- useful for obtaining in-depth info about an individual child Naturalistic observation- examination of on-going behavior in an environment no controlled by the researched Structured observation- method that involves presenting an identical situation to each child and recording the child’s behavior Variables- attributes that vary across individuals (age, gender, expectations) Correlational designs- studies indicated how variables are related to each other Correlation- association b/w 2 variables Correlation coefficient- stat that indicates direction and strength of a correlation Direction of causation problem- concept that correlations b/w 2 variables doesn’t indicate which variables is the cause of the other Third variable problem- concept that a correlation b/w 2 variables may stem from both being influenced by some 3 rd variable Experimental control- ability of researches to determine the specific experiences that children have during the course of an experiment Experimental group- children in an experimental design who are presented the experience of interest Control group- children in an experimental design who aren’t presented the experience of interest but in other ways are treated similarly Independent variable- experience children in the experimental group receive and that children in the control group don’t receive Dependent variable- behavior that is measured to determine whether it is affected by exposure to the independent variable Advantages of correlational design-only way to compare many groups of interest Disadvantages of correlational design- 3 variable problem; direction-of-causation problem rd Advantages of experimental design- allows causal inferences because design rules out direction-of-causation and 3 variable problems Disadvantages of experimental design- need for experimental control often leads to artificial experimental situations; can’t be used to study many differences and variables of interest (sex, age, etc.) Advantages of cross sectional- yields useful data about differences among age groups; quick to administer Disadvantages of cross sectional-uninformative about stability of individual differences over time; uninformative about similarities and differences in individual children’s patterns of change Advantages of longitudinal- indicates degree of stability of individual differences of long periods; shows individual children’s patterns off change over long periods Disadvantages of longitudinal- difficult to keep all participants in study; repeatedly testing children can threaten external validity of study Advantages of microgenetic- intensive observation of changes while they’re occurring can reveal process of change; reveals individual change patterns over short periods in considerable detail Disadvantages of microgenetic- doesn’t provide info about typical patterns of change over long periods; doesn’t reveal individual change patterns over long periods Correlation doesn’t imply causation; correlation indicates the degree to which 2 variables are associated & causation indicates that changing the value of one variable will change
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