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General Psychology Outline Chapters 3-8 + Vocabulary Terms.docx

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Margaret Ingate

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Psychology Key Terms accommodation of the lens of the eye action potential amygdala anatomy and function of neurons anatomy of the eye Attachment autonomic nervous system axon terminal buttons basal ganglia = striatum, location, function basilar membrane behavioral genetics bipolar cells blind spot blindness: causes, characteristics Bowlby & Ainsworth case studies cerebral hemispheres characteristics of different mental health providers cochlea color after effects control group corpus callosum correlation: meaning, use, range deafness: conduction, nerve, causes treatment demand characteristics dendrites dendritic spines dependent variable depressant drugs determinism, free will dopamine dualism endorphins epigenetics Erikson, psychosocial crises experimental design experimental group falsifiability feature detectors in the visual system fovea/macula frequency of sound waves frontal lobe, location, functions functional differences between cerebral hemispheres GABA gap junctions genes' effects hair cells hallucinogenic drugs hearing heritability Hippocampus – large forebrain structure in the interior of the temporal lobe HM Huntington's disease hypothesis independent variable individual differences in sensory capabilities intersubjectivity Kohlberg and stages of moral development limbic system mean, mode, median: definitions, uses medulla oblongata monism motor nerves multiplier effect myelin naturalistic observation neural inhibition neural plasticity neurotransmitters normal distribution/Gaussian distribution/bell shaped curve occipital lobe, location functions operational definition opiates opponent process theory of color vision optic nerve parietal lobe, location, functions Parkinson's disease peripheral nervous system peripheral retina Phineas Gage Piaget's stages post synaptic potential psychotrophic drugs receptor potential receptors retinal ganglion cells retinex theory of color vision rods and cones, retina samples, populations sensory nerves serotonin shared attention somatic nervous system split brain surgery standard deviation stimulant drugs Strange situation – procedure in which a mother and her infant come into a room with many toys, and psychologists monitor the child’s behavior as the mother and a stranger enter and leave the room at various times subcortical brain structures substantia nigra surveys sympathetic nervous system temporal lobe, location functions thalamus, sensory relay function, attentional function trichromatic theory of color vision Vygotsky zone of proximal development – distance between what a child can do alone and what is possible with help equilibration – establishment of harmony or balance between accommodation and assimilation Exam 2 Ebbinghaus Serial position effect recency effect – tendency to remember the final items better than preceding items Primacy effect – tendency for the first information we learn about someone to influence us more than later information does Confabulations – attempts by amnesic patients to fill in the gaps of their memory proactive inhibition retroactive inhibition recognition, free recall – describing what you remember (essay tests) cued recall – method to test memory by providing significant hints about the material procedural memory declarative memory – memories we can readily state in words explicit memory – a memory that someone can state, recognizing it as a memory implicit memory semantic memory – knowledge of principles and facts episodic memory – memory for specific events in your life HM and memory children as witnesses memory for traumatic events savings effect in memory infant or infantile amnesia – scarcity of early episodic memories Repression – according to Freudian theory, the motivated removal of something to the subconscious Dissociation – memory that one has stored but cannot retrieve motivated forgetting whole word effect hindsight bias – tendency to mold our recollection of the past to fit how events later turn out retrograde amnesia – loss of memory for events that occurred before the brain damage anterograde amnesia – loss of memory for events that occurred after the brain damage anterograde - unable to store new long-term memories false memory – inaccurate report that someone believes to be a memory "recovered" memory memory and hypnosis flashbulb memory amnesia Korsakoff syndrome – impaired memory and reasoning caused by a prolonged deficiency in vitamin B1 (thiamine), usually as a result of chronic alcoholism von Resdorff effect Alzheimer's disease – condition occurring mostly in old age, characterized by increasingly severe memory loss, confusion, depression, disordered thinking, and impaired attention longitudinal design cross-sectional – procedure that compares groups of individuals of different age groups at the same time sequential design – procedure that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs Habituation – decreased response to a repeated stimulus dishabituation in infant studies – increased in a previously habituated response as a result of a change in stimulation low birth weight Attention – tendency to respond to and to remember some stimuli more than others Egocentric – seeing the world as centered around oneself, with difficulty taking another person’s perspective Attentive process – procedure that requires searching through the items in a series preattentive processes/pop-out effects – visual information that stands out immediately memory and learning in newborns Piaget, stages of cognitive development sensorimotor stage – period early in life when behavior is mostly simple motor responses and sensory stimuli preoperational stage – second stage of intellectual development, in which children lack operations object permanence – idea at objects continue to exist even when we do not see or hear them stage of concrete operations – period when children perform mental operations on concrete objects but still have trouble with hypothetical or abstract ideas stage of formal operations – according to Piaget, period marked by logical, deductive reasoning and operations – reversible mental process systematic planning conservation tasks – concept that objects retain properties such as number, length, area, and mass after changes in shape or arrangement of objects violation of expectations technique personal fable adolescent risk taking peer influence in adolescence Erikson, crises of psychosocial development Identity, identity statuses identity foreclosure – state of reaching decision without much thought identity moratorium – state of considering the issues but not yet making decisions identity diffusion – condition in which someone has not yet given serious thought to making decisions and has no clear sense of identity identity achievement – outcome of having explored many possible identities and then making one’s own decisions identity crisis – concerns with decision about the future and the quest for self-understanding Behaviorism – the position that psychology should concern itself only with what people and other animals do, and the circumstances in which they do it Tolman & cognitive maps Rescorla Garcia Pavlov Thorndike Skinner Watson epigenetics effects of genes depth of processing – idea that how easily you retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations you form encoding specificity Priming – exposing someone to an experience that facilitates the thinking of or recognizing something else distributed practice state dependent learning post-event effects on memory mental rotation reaction time methods semantic hierarchy conceptual hierarchy prototype theory spreading activation – process by which the activation of one concept activates or primes related concepts change blindness – failure to detect changes in parts of a scene attentional blink system 1 – thinking cognitive processing for quick, automatic processes system 2 thinking – thinking cognitive processing for mathematical calculations, evaluating evidence, and anything that requires attention functional fixedness – tendency to adhere to a single approach or single way of using an item availability heuristic – tendency to assume that if we easily think of examples of a category, then that category must be common representative heuristic – assumption that an item resembles members of a categories are probably in the same category Heuristic – strategy for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess Algorithm – an explicit procedure for calculating an answer or testing every hypothesis Sunk cost effect – willingness to do something because of money or effort already spent set (in problem solving) deep structure of utterances surface structure of utterances Chomsky Tomasello language abilities of other primates Wernicke’s aphasia – condition marked by impaired recall of nouns and impaired language comprehension Broca’s aphasia – condition characterized by difficulty in language production language acquisition device – built-in mechanism for acquiring language stages in language acquisition phonemic tuning babbling cooing Chunking – grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters Chaining – procedure for reinforcing each behavior with the opportunity to engage in the next response second language acquisition working memory – system for working with current information short term memory sensory memory Spurling's experiment with iconic memory echoic memory long term memory dyslexia selective attrition – tendency of certain kinds of people to drop out of a study cohort effects cohort – group of people born at a particular time or a group of people who enter an organization at a particular time cross-sectional research designs retina, retinal anatomy and function cochlea, anatomy and function phenylketonuria/PKU gene - environment interactions Huntington's disease transformational grammar – system for converting deep structure to surface structure eye witness testimony police interrogation procedures and memory errors sampling techniques in research Stroop effect – tendency to read the word instead of saying the color of ink in which it is printed Piagetian accommodation – modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem assimilation – applying a schema to new objects or problems teratogens Fetal Alcohol syndrome – condition marked by physical deformities or mental impairment, caused by alcohol consumed by the mother during pregnancy opponent process theory in vision negative after-images in vision midlife transition – period of reassessing goals, setting new ones, and preparing for the rest of life blocking effect – phenomenon in which the previously established association to one stimulus blocks the formation of an association to an added stimulus disequilibrium principle – idea that anything that decreases opportunity for an activity produces disequilibrium, and an opportunity to return to equilibrium is reinforcing discriminative stimulus – item that indicates whether a response is appropriate or inappropriate social –learning approach – view that we learn about many behaviors by observing the behavior of others self-efficacy – belief of being able to perform a task successfully preparedness – concept that evolution has prepared us to learn some associations more easily than others consolidate – converting a short-term memory into long-term memory short-term memory – temporary storage of recent events long-term memory – relatively permanent storage indirect memory – an influence of some experience of what you say or do even though you might not be aware of the influence reconstruct – putting together an account of past events based partly on memories and partly on expectations of what must have happened hypermnesia – gain of memory over time method of loci – procedure of memorizing a series of places, and then using vivid images to associate each location with something you want to remember Stop-Signal Task – procedure in which a person responds as quickly as possible to a signal but inhibits the response in the event of a second signal Maximizing – thoroughly considering as many choices as possible to find the best one Satisficing – searching only until you find something satisfactory Near transfer – benefit to a new skill based on practice of a similar skill Far transfer – benefit from practicing something not similar to it Confirmation bias – tendency to accept an hypothesis and then look for evidence to support it instead of considering other possibilities Word-superiority effect – tendency to identify a letter more accurately when it is in a word then when it is by itself Chapter 3: Biological Psychology recap: neurons, glia, and synapses  neurons - major structures? different forms  glia - multiple types and purposes  synapses - chemical and electric  electrical potentials: receptor potential, resting, post-synaptic, action potential  neurotransmitters: excitatory or inhibitory (some chemicals are both, some are only one or the other) How is the nervous system organized? 1. Central Nervous System - neurons in brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System - neurons in rest of body  somatic nervous system - all neurons that take in sensory info(touch, pain, interoception) from  all over body and deliver to spinal cord and brain  autonomic  1. sympathetic nervous system (prepares us for action. eg adrenaline. beta-blockers/alpha-blockers dampen the somatic nervous system)  2. parasympathetic nervous system (controls digestive and other organ function) What is the difference between nerves and neurons?  nerves are bundles or processes of neurons, may contain only motor fibers, only sensory fibers, or be mixed  nerves are part of peripheral nervous system  nerves enter and exit the central nervous system through the spinal and cranial ganglia Structures of the Brain  Brain stem - pons, reticular formation, cerebellum  Deep brain structures - thalamus (2 football shaped), hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra, striatum (basal ganglia), pituitary gland  cerebral cortex (divided down midline front to back - hemispheres, further divided into lobes) - visual, auditory, motor, sensory, association 1. Brainstem  function - regulates basic life functions  location - connects brain to rest of body via spinal cord  parts of brainstem  1. reticular formation - regulates sleep/wake cycle - main source of serotonin - important for mood and activity levels  2. pons - main source of neurotransmitter norepinephrine - important for arousal and attention  3. medulla - regulates heartbeat, breathing, swallowing, and coughing (damaged leads to permanent coma) regulate consciousness and arousal 2. Cerebellum  function: controls motor, coordinated movt and balance. involved in learning movement (walking, skiing, playing tennis, violin), some involvement in emotion  location: sits at back of brain and connected to brainstem  important in timing in transmission of movement 3. Deep brain structures/midline structures  location: right on top of brainstem(middle of brain)  different parts  1. basal ganglia or striatum - surround thalamus, control input to thalamus, involved in attention, movement [nucleus accumbens - important for motivation, reward, and addiction]  2. thalamus (2)- brain's sensory switch board: directs messages to cortex and transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla (highly organized)  3. hypothalamus - helps direct eating, drinking, sex, body temperature, and blood chemistry, aggressive behavior,  4. pituitary gland - regulates hormones throughout body  5. tectum and tegmentum (thalamus sits on this, aka midbrain)- reflexive eye and head movts, other functions. sits on top of medulla/brainstem  6. Limbic System - involved in emotion: hypothalamus plus cortical structures, including hippocampus (memory) and amygdala (fear and aggression) Neocortex: folded outer covering - Cerebral Cortex  different parts  1. frontal lobe (front of brain) - higher intellectual thinking. Broca's area (speech production). Prefrontal cortex (working memory, morality, mood)  2. occipital Lobe (back of brain) - vision  3. Temporal Lobe (sides of brain) - hearing, language, learning, and memory, emotion. Wernicke's area - language comprehension  4. Parietal Lobe - somatosensory cortex, attention, spatial thinking, language In Cerebral Cortex  Sensory Cortex - registers input from sensory neurons (via thalamus)  Motor Cortex - sends messages along motor neurons that move striated muscles  Association Cortex - everything else, thought, memory, emotion, feelings Body Maps  retinotopic representation in superior colliculus, in medical geniculate nucleus of thalamus, in primary visual cortex  second somatosensory area in parietal lobe  third somatosensory area in insula Corpus Callosum  function - communicates info from one side of brain to other  location: midline. connects two brain hemispheres  insula: important in consciousness, emotion Contralateral representation  left hemisphere - receives sensory input from right side of body. controls movt of right side of body  right hemisphere - sensory input from left side of body. controls movement of left side of body  except axons in nasal retina cross. left side sees right image, right side sees left image The binding problem  How do we achieve a unified consciousness from modular brain?  no homunculus "little me"  parietal lobe plays key role. Balint's syndrome: failures of visual-motor integration - inability to use vision to guide reaching to stationary objects How does brain develop?  during the 3rd week of prenatal development, part of outer layer of embryo (called ectoderm) folds in on itself to form neural tube.  Neural Tube - beginning of brain. [Neurogenesis - new neurons are created in middle of tube and then travel to form all parts of brain - neural migration]  Defects occur in first 3-4 weeks of pregnancy Glia cells guide undifferentiated neurons to locations Neurogenesis occurs before birth. Synaptogenesis occurs throughout life Synaptogenesis - The creation of new synapses and thereby connections between neurons  learning changes the microscopic structure of the brain and the function of neural circuits, creating and strengthening synapses, increasing myelination of active circuits. How does brain function to make us different?  Contralateral representation and control: handedness  Lateralization of functions  -Left: language, positive emotion, finely detailed analysis of sound, form, high spatial frequency info  -Right: attention, negative emotion, global recognition of pattern, low spatial frequency info  Experience changes size of some brain structures, numbers of receptor sites for different neurotransmitters  Genes influence neurotransmitter function interact with experience Neurological Diseases  Psychiatric Illnesses - complex disorders of thought and behavior, functional disorders of the brain  Neurological Illness - structural problems in the brain due to disease. - Multiple sclerosis - loss of myelin resulting in poor motor skills, poor sensory capabilities, and ultimately impaired cognition. - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS of Lou Gehrig's disease) - gradual death of motor neurons. victim becomes paralyzed. - Parkinson's disease - dopaminergic neurons die which causes over activity in striatum (basal ganglia) resulting in tremors and dementia. Impaired attention, difficulty in movement, impaired thinking. - Huntington's disease -neurons in the striatum (basal ganglia) die (stop inhibiting neurons in thalmus) which causes awkward movements and symptoms of psychosis. Thinking becomes disorders in advanced stages. Genes, evolution, brains, and behavior  Variation and selection as mechanisms of evolution/ change - within populations, within individuals  23 pairs of chromosomes, each carrying many genes  Genes: carry instructions for construction of proteins, regulate the activity/expression of other genes  Epigenetics: study of effects of environmental factors on gene expression. (parental care, climate, chemicals added to environment) Epigenetic changes do not change DNA sequences  Experiences (maternal care or lack of) induce epigenetic changes  Nutrition induces epigenetic changes  pre-natal and early developmental epigenetic changes have long-lasting effects  Epigenetic changes are a source of phenotypic variation, within the individual  molecules and can attach to histone tails and can alter DNA Genes and behavior: indirect and even more indirect influences  genes influence the nervous system: numbers and distribution of different receptor types; re-uptake, degradation of neurotransmitters  genes influence structures and function outside the NS, eg. production of digestive enzymes Most psychologically interesting traits: polygenic (many different genes whose activity interact to influence those traits), subject to epigenetic influence (behavioral geneticists), can be studied in family studies, particularly twin studies  behavioral genetics examines the genetic contribution to psychological and behavioral traits  Multiplier effects: small advantages. disadvantages alter the environment in ways that amplify the difference Evolutionary psychology  starts with Darwin - argued behavior and physical structure are shaped by natural selection. some behavioral patterns are more adaptive to others. Darwin wrote on the expression of emotions in animals and man. Wrote systematic baby diary, details pattern of behavioral change  focuses on understanding the adaptive advantages of surviving behavioral patterns  controversial explanations of mating patterns  Parental Investment Theory - one reproductive strategy for men is to mate with as many people as possible. Women cannot improve reproductive activity because takes 9 months to carry and several years to wean.  other areas are less controversial -altruism (acts of kindness that benefit other individual without any expectation that act will be rewarded) -detecting cheaters - survival advantage -Alienation and the impersonal exchange economy - increase feelings of disconnect with others. Money becomes the exchange -limits on community (the monkey-sphere) Summary  Case studies, animal studies, imaging studies  CNS and PNS, made of neurons and glial cells  neurotransmitters enable neurons to communicate with each other, signal muscles and glands to act  Brain develops from neural tube, beginning in early embryonic development  cortex processes sensory input, stores memories, creates and evaluates plans, directs action  localization of function, lateralization, contralateral representation and control, body maps, interaction of genes and experience  genetic influences are real, but phenotypes are malleable Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception  Sensory Transduction: Sensation converts or transduces physical stimuli into patterns of nervous system responses. (Change physical energy by receptor cells into neurochemical energy). Sensation is peripheral process. Perception is how we make sense of sensory input, how brain integrates previous knowledge to understand something about the world.  Perception interprets those responses  Stimuli are physical energies that cause changes in sensory receptors. Induces transduction response.  Receptors are specialized cells that convert physical stimuli into signals in the nervous system  We will concentrate on vision but cover the other senses The Detection of Light  The visual system detects light energy.  Visible light is one very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum - the continuum of frequencies of radiated energy.  The human eye detects energy wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm. The structure of the Eye  The pupil is an adjustable opening through which light enters the eye.  The iris surrounds the pupil. Its muscles cause the pupil to dilate or constrict. It also gives your eye its characteristic color.  The eyeball's outer surface is the rigid, transparent cornea. It admits light through the pupil.  Light then passes through the lens.  The flexible lens varies in thickness, enabling the eye to accommodate or adjust focus for different distances.  Fovea - contains mostly cones, for detailed vision  Cones - color vision  Rods - see in dim light Retina is sensory structure of the eye  The lens directs light through a clear, jellylike substance - the vitreous humor - to the back of the eyeball.  The retina, where the visual receptors (photoreceptors) are, is at the back of the eyeball, covering less than half of the inner surface Common Disorders of Vision  Presbyopia develops in middle age - lens loses flexibility and therefore its ability to bring nearby objects into focus.  Elongated eyeballs cause myopia (nearsightedness) in which nearby objects are well-visualized but not distant ones.  Flattened eyeballs cause hyperopia (farsightedness) - the ability to focus well on distant objects, but not on nearby ones.  -Lens changes shape so that objects far and near can come into focus. The lens bends entering light rays so that they fall on retina  Glaucoma results from increased pressure in eyeball - optic nerve is damaged and peripheral vision is impaired - "normal pressure" glaucoma  Cataracts cause the lens to cloud - for treatment, the actual lens is replaced with a contact lens. The Visual Receptors  The retina contains 2 types of specialized neurons - rods and cones  rods far outnumber cones  5-10% of visual receptors in human retina are cones  The cones are used in color, daytime and detail vision  Rods are adapted for night vision  Nocturnal species have few cones and many rods, giving them enhanced dark vision.  The center of the retina, and location of most of cones is fovea  It is the region of greatest visual acuity  There are many more rods than cones in peripheral regions of retina. Dark Adaptation: 1-2 min to adjust visually to darkness. Improved sensitivity to dark.  Exposure to light chemically alters retinaldehyde (photopigment) molecules, embedded in folded membranes within the receptors  These changes stimulate our visual receptors, changing receptor potentials.  In daylight, photopigment molecules are depleted and regenerated at the same rate  the amount in the retina is balanced and visual sensitivity level is constant  In darkness the receptors regenerate molecules with no depletion  The increase in retinaldehydes enhances dark adaptation Cones and rods adapt at different rates  cones regenerate photopigments more quickly in all conditions but are constantly regenerating  rods use daytime to fully regenerate photopigments  the large number of rods and undisturbed regeneration process of rods, causes their much higher sensitivity to faint light The Tapetum lies behind the retina in cats, dogs and other nocturnal predators - it reflects light back, increasing sensitivity of night vision, but blurring precision Rods and cones synapse with bipolar cells, which synapse w/ retinal ganglion cells  bipolar cells gather impulses from rods and cones  retinal ganglion cells' axons make up the optic nerve  the first action potentials are generated by retinal ganglion cells  horizontal and amacrine cells in between rods/cones and ganglion cells - serve to inhibit or accentuate Axons of ganglion cells form the optic nerve exit the eye  A blind spot exists in each eye where the optic nerve leaves the eye  This "blind spot" is covered as info from each retina "fills in" the blind spot from the other one  The resulting view in the visual cortex is integrated. At optic chiasm, half of each optic nerve crosses to other side of the brain  the axons separate and send info throughout brain  Most send info to occipital lobe via lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus. Some send info to superior colliculus in midbrain. some send info to another thalamic nucleus (also suprachiasmatic nucleus, pulvinar) Info from two retinas is integrated in occipital visual cortex  each cortical cell receives input from both retinas (input crosses via the corpus callosum)  when the 2 retinas focus on the same point, their input is easily integrated b/c the message from each is almost the same Sometimes the images from each retina do conflict  cortical cells are alternately stimulated and inhabited while integrating them  This is binocular rivalry Neural activity of the visual cortex is crucial for form perception and recognition  ppl with intact eyes but a danged visual cortex lose the ability to form imagery - cortical blindness  ppl w damaged visual cortex but intact eyes may demonstrate "blind sight" (rare) the ability to accurately avoid or even grasp objects. Localization depends on projections to parietal cortex (perception of space). Particular wavelengths of electromagnetic energy correspond to different colors Three kinds of cones respond to different wavelengths - cells in the visual pathway process info from cones in terms of opposites red vs green yellow vs blue white vs black  cortical cells integrate inputs from all over the visual field creating color  3 theories of color vision: Young-Helmholtz, opponent-process, and retinex theory Young-Helmholtz (Trichromatic) Theory  Proposes that receptors respond to 3 primary colors  Each type of cone is most sensitive to a specific range of wavelengths  -short wavelengths become blue  -medium wavelengths are seen as green  -long wavelengths become red Wavelengths induce different levels of activity in each type of cone  light that stimulates the medium and long wavelength cones roughly equally is perceived as yellow  light that excites all three types equally is perceived as white Doesn't account for more complex aspects of color perception Opponent-Process Theory  Four colors are seen as primary - red, green, blue, and yellow  we see opposite colored after-images when staring at an object of one color  Stare at a red object, and you see a green after-image when you stop.  Hering proposed ta color is perceived not in terms of separate categories but as a system of paired opposites. red/green, yellow/blue, white/black Negative after-images result from alternating stimulation and inhibition of visual system neurons Retinex Theory - we perceive objects as remaining the same color in different lighting conditions  color constancy in different illumination  trichromatic and opponent-process theories don't account for it  Edwin Land proposed that we perceive color as cerebral cortex compares various retinal patterns  comparing different patterns of light from areas across the retina, cortical cells synthesize a color perception for each Color Vision Deficiency  total inability to distinguish colors is very rare except as a result of brain damage  red-green most common type of color deficiency  two forms  -Protanopia, due to lack of long-wavelength cones  -deuteranopia, due to a lack of medium-wavelength cones  -trianopia very rare (yellow-blue deficiency) What you see is "in your brain"  before animals could see color, there was none  vision is an active construction and interpretation of many stimuli  sensation seems simple, but it is a challenging area of psych sci Nonvisual Senses Ear (hearing) - transduces sounds waves and send info about them to brain  sound waves are vibrations in air or another medium  sound waves vary according to frequency and amplitude  Frequency is the number of vibrations or cycles of sound wave per second, Hz. Perceive frequency as pitch  high-frequency sound wave is perceived as high -pitched, and low frequency wave as low-pitched  amplitude is intensity of sound waves and is perceived as loudness  pitch and loudness are psychological experiences - their perception doesn’t depend on frequency and amplitude alone Mechanical energy of sound waves is transmitted through structures of the ear. The cochlea contains the sensory receptor cells, hair cells. Tonotopic organization 1. Sound waves vibrate the eardrum 2. 3 tiny bones convert the eardrum's vibrations into vibrations in the fluid-filled cochlea 3. These vibrations displace hair cells along the basilar membrane in the cochlea. The hair cells connect to neurons of the auditory nerve  it transmits the impulses from the cochlea to the cerebral cortex (via the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus)  some input to inferior colliculus of the midbrain  some to the brainstem Two common forms of deafness  Conduction deafness: The three special bones in the ear don't transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea  Nerve deafness: damage to the structures that receive/transmit impulses - the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve. (tumors and head injury, or birth defect) Hearing changes over the life course  Pitch Perception: adults hear sound waves approximately between 15 and 20,000 Hz. Perceived pitch depends partly on detected frequency  At low frequency (up to about 100 Hz) we hear by the frequency principle  sound waves pass through fluid in the cochlea causing the hair cells to vibrate  This produces synchronized action potentials  at about 100-4000 Hz, we hear by the volley principle  fewer hair cells fire, response occurs in groups or volleys, producing action potentials  volleys predominate in transmission of speech and music  beyond 4000 z, we hear by the place principle  the location of cells stimulated by the sound waves depends on the their frequency  the highest frequency sounds vibrate hair cells near the stirrup  between 100-4000 Hz, hearing results from combined effects of the volley and place principles How do we localize sound?  distance is estimated from loudness and pitch  a sound growing louder is interpreted as approaching  Doppler effect: an increasing pitch is approaching  the only cue for absolute distance is the amount of reverberation experienced How do we keep our balance? Vestibular Sense  Changes in the position of the head cause stimulation of the otolith and hair cell receptors  these tell the brain the direction of tilt, amount of acceleration and position of the head with respect to gravity  this sense is crucial for maintaining equilibrium and posture Semicircular canals are oriented in three different directions  These hair-cell-lined canals contain a jellylike substance  acceleration moves the jellylike substance and the hair cells, stimulating them  hair cells are also contained in two otolith organs  these contain calcium carbonate particles that stimulate different sets of hair cells, depending on which way the head tilts Touch is comprised of several independent cutaneous senses  these depend on different types of receptors, and include: pressure, warmth, cold, pain, vibration, movement and stretch of skin Primary somatosensory cortex  the fingertips and lips contain many more cutaneous receptors than other body regions  proportionally more parietal lobe tissue is given over the processing their inputs  in the absence of impairment we are very good at identifying objects by touch alone Pain receptors are simple; pain perception is complex  pain receptors are simple nerve endings that travel to the spinal cord  pain perception is a complex mixture of sensation and perception mediates by emotion  two different areas of the brain govern sensory and emotional interpretations  thus some people can be distracted or use self-hypnosis to manage pain  The Gate Theory of Pain  -seeking or believing in treatment can cause a reduction of symptoms  -placebo effectiveness in reducing pain is confirmed by experiments  -many processes can inc or dec the experience of pain  -Melzack and Wall proposed the gate theory in 1960s  -pain messages must pass through a "gate" in the spinal cord  -the gate can block as well as facilitate the messages Special neurotransmitter is involved in pain  known as Substance P, this neurotransmitter is released during intense pain  reactions to painful stimuli are reduced in animals that lack substance P  Ex: endorphins block the release of a transmitter conveying pain sensations. opiates imitate the effects of endorphins Endorphins, chemically identical to opiates, are released in response to substance P  they weaken pain sensations  their release may be induced by sensory experiences or exercise  listening to music or engaging in sexual activity Phantom Limb  an amputee feels a missing body part as if it were still there  once it was thought to be due to emotions or irritation of the stump of the missing limb  the sensations originate from neural activity in the somatosensory cortex near the area dedicated to the missing limb  the neurons of the face area are adjacent to the hand area  face neurons may produce a feeling of a phantom limb  they stimulate the area that once only registered sensations of the hand Taste and Smell: The Chemical Senses Taste and smell together are referred as the "chemical senses". Many invertebrates rely almost entirely on them; other mammals use them much more than we do. The Chemical Senses  The sense of taste detects chemicals on the tongue, the throat, other body structures  it controls and motivates eating and drinking  The taste buds are located in the folds on the surface of the tongue. They contain most of the human taste receptors  taste buds, which react to chemicals dissolved in saliva, are located along the edge of the tongue in adult humans Taste receptors  traditionally western science has recognized four tastes: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter  researchers believe that monosodium glutamate (SMG), may represent a fifth type called "umami"  Cells identical to taste receptors are found in other parts of the body. Function is unclear Olfaction  the sense of smell  its receptors are located in the mucous membranes in the rear air passages of the nose  they detect airborne chemical molecules  there are hundreds of types of human olfactory receptors  other mammals have many more  each type of smell receptor is specialized for detection of a particular group of related chemicals  Receptor cells are regenerated constantly. hair cells, rods, and cones are NOT regenerated  Smell is vital for food selection  prefrontal cortical neurons receive both taste and smell input combined and producing the experience of flavor  the olfactory tract bypasses the thalamus and goes directly to the olfactory bulb  the bulb is directly connected to the limbic system Olfaction plays a vital social role in reproduction  pheromones are chemicals for intraspecies communication  one use is sexual communication  pheromones act on the vomeronasal organ broadcasting info about fertility and sexual receptivity  no definite human pheromones have been identified, though several "candidate" molecules have effects on mood Humans don't rely on the socio-sexual influences of pheromones to choose potential mates  they may play a role nonetheless  McClintock Effect  research reveals that female college students who room together tend to have synchronized menstrual cycles Synesthesia  condition in which a sensory stimulus elicits a perception for a different one  ex: a sound wave would produce a color or taste  one in 500 people report experiences of synesthesia although the condition may be underreported  its existence confirms that the world we experience is based in interpretations made by our brains Sensory Systems  the world that is sensed by a cat, a snail, or bat is very different than the one we do  our senses provide info that helps us survive and thrive in our environment Perception: making sense of it all  psychophysics - classical and signal detection theory. attempts to quantitatively relate physical and psychological features.  perceptual constancy  perceptual illusions  form perception and recognition - feature detection, Gestalt principles or perception  face recognition, recognition of intentional movement  depth perception - monocular and binocular cues Chapter 5: Developmental psychology covers broad ground  infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, late adulthood  physical, cognitive, social, emotional development  normal development, developmental trajectories (reflects how it is watch, the medium which it travels, things it encounters, and what goal it was launched toward), developmental disabilities, gender differences, effects of parenting, effects of family structure Five important names in the psychological study of development Stage theories: imply thinking/feeling/behaving is very different in different stages; order assumed to be invariant  Piaget - four stages of cognitive development  wrote about children's moral, social, and motor develop.  Vygotsky - sociocultural model of development  Erikson - eight crises of psychosocial development  Kohlberg - stages of moral development  Bowlby & Ainsworth - attachment theory Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was student of Anna Freud, Freud's daughter  0-1 Trust vs Mistrust - babies have to trust others to meet their basic needs. if caregivers are unresponsive or inconsistent, the baby may come to mistrust others.  1-2 autonomy vs shame and doubt - toddlers learn to take care of themselves. Failure may lead to feelings of shame and incompetence.  3-6 initiative vs guilt - as children take on new activities that may be beyond their capacity, they may come into conflict with parents, leading to feelings of guilt  6-12 industry vs inferiority - mastery of academic and social skills leads to self-assurance, but failure creates feelings of inferiority  12-20 identity vs role confusion - adolescents must grapple with and solve issues of personal, social, and occupational identity. Otherwise, they remain confused about their looming adult roles  20-40 intimacy vs isolation - the priority is forming intimate relationships with friends and partners. Failure leads to a sense of loneliness and isolation  40-65 generativity vs stagnation - adults face the task of being productive in their work and supportive to their families. Failure results in a stagnant, self-centered existence  65+ ego integrity vs despair - in old age, the person looks back either on a meaningful, productive life or on one of unfulfilled promises and unrealized goals Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss psychologist, perhaps the most influential developmental psychologist  Four stages of cognitive development  Sensori-motor stage: 0-2  -infant learns about the world through movement and manipulation of objects  pre-operational stage: 2-6/7  -thinking is based on immediate perception (centration - child only pays attention to one aspect of situation;1-dimensional thinking, ego-centrism)  period of concrete operations: 7-12  period of formal operations: 12+ Piaget underestimated infants  researchers who use infants' ability to control where they look, how long they look, how fast they suck, how fast they kick have discovered Vygotsky (1896-1934) was a Russian psychologist whose work became influential in the US beginning in the 1970s  Development occurs in a socio-cultural context  methods are universal, content is culture-specific  -intersubjectivity(infant realizes another person is having similar reactions), joint attention (others pay attention to something, infant also pays attention)  -zone of proximal development (just outside competence of child without assistance), scaffolding(teaching/assistance), guided participation Influenced by Piaget, Kohlberg (1927-1987) proposed three stages of moral reasoning 1. Preconventional Level  Heinz should steal the drug b/c: 1. punishment orientation: if Heinz just lets his die, he could get in big trouble. 2. Native Hedonism: if he saves his wife's life, she'll be really nice to him after that.  Heinz shouldn't steal the drug b/c: 1. punishment orientation: if he steals the drug, he could get put in jail 2. If he goes to jail, his wide wont' be must use to him 2. Conventional Level  Heinz should steal the drug b/c: 3. "good boy/good girl" orientation: A good husband is supposed to take care of his wife. 4. social order orientation: he has a duty to save his wife, but he should pay back the money and take his punishment for stealing  Heinz shouldn't steal the drug b/c: 3. if he becomes a thief, he'll bring shame on his family. 4. breaking the
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